Info file ../info/emacs, produced by Makeinfo, -*- Text -*- from
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This file documents the GNU Emacs editor.

Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1988 Richard M. Stallman.

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manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
that the sections entitled "The GNU Manifesto", "Distribution" and
"GNU General Public License" are included exactly as in the original,
and provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed
under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
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File: emacs,  Node: Glossary,  Next: Key Index,  Prev: Intro,  Up: Top


An abbrev is a text string which expands into a different text string
when present in the buffer.  For example, you might define a short
word as an abbrev for a long phrase that you want to insert
frequently.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Aborting means getting out of a recursive edit (q.v.).  The commands
`C-]' and `M-x top-level' are used for this.  *Note Quitting::.

Auto Fill mode
Auto Fill mode is a minor mode in which text that you insert is
automatically broken into lines of fixed width.  *Note Filling::.

Auto Saving
Auto saving is when Emacs automatically stores the contents of an
Emacs buffer in a specially-named file so that the information will
not be lost if the buffer is lost due to a system error or user error.
*Note Auto Save::.

Backup File
A backup file records the contents that a file had before the current
editing session.  Emacs makes backup files automatically to help you
track down or cancel changes you later regret making.  *Note Backup::.

Balance Parentheses
Emacs can balance parentheses manually or automatically.  Manual
balancing is done by the commands to move over balanced expressions
(*note Lists::.).  Automatic balancing is done by blinking the
parenthesis that matches one just inserted (*note Matching Parens:

To bind a key is to change its binding (q.v.).  *Note Rebinding::.

A key gets its meaning in Emacs by having a binding which is a
command (q.v.), a Lisp function that is run when the key is typed. 
*Note Binding: Commands.  Customization often involves rebinding a
character to a different command function.  The bindings of all keys
are recorded in the keymaps (q.v.).  *Note Keymaps::.

Blank Lines
Blank lines are lines that contain only whitespace.  Emacs has
several commands for operating on the blank lines in the buffer.

The buffer is the basic editing unit; one buffer corresponds to one
piece of text being edited.  You can have several buffers, but at any
time you are editing only one, the `selected' buffer, though several
can be visible when you are using multiple windows.  *Note Buffers::.

Buffer Selection History
Emacs keeps a buffer selection history which records how recently
each Emacs buffer has been selected.  This is used for choosing a
buffer to select.  *Note Buffers::.

`C' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control.  *Note
C-: Characters.

`C-M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
Control-Meta.  *Note C-M-: Characters.

Case Conversion
Case conversion means changing text from upper case to lower case or
vice versa.  *Note Case::, for the commands for case conversion.

Characters form the contents of an Emacs buffer; also, Emacs commands
are invoked by keys (q.v.), which are sequences of one or more
characters.  *Note Characters::.

A command is a Lisp function specially defined to be able to serve as
a key binding in Emacs.  When you type a key (q.v.), its binding
(q.v.) is looked up in the relevant keymaps (q.v.) to find the
command to run.  *Note Commands::.

Command Name
A command name is the name of a Lisp symbol which is a command (*note
Commands::.).  You can invoke any command by its name using `M-x'
(*note M-x::.).

A comment is text in a program which is intended only for humans
reading the program, and is marked specially so that it will be
ignored when the program is loaded or compiled.  Emacs offers special
commands for creating, aligning and killing comments.  *Note

Compilation is the process of creating an executable program from
source code.  Emacs has commands for compiling files of Emacs Lisp
code (*note Lisp Libraries::.) and programs in C and other languages
(*note Compilation::.).

Complete Key
A complete key is a character or sequence of characters which, when
typed by the user, fully specifies one action to be performed by
Emacs.  For example, `X' and `Control-f' and `Control-x m' are keys. 
Keys derive their meanings from being bound (q.v.) to commands (q.v.).
Thus, `X' is conventionally bound to a command to insert `X' in the
buffer; `C-x m' is conventionally bound to a command to begin
composing a mail message. *Note Keys::.

Completion is what Emacs does when it automatically fills out an
abbreviation for a name into the entire name.  Completion is done for
minibuffer (q.v.) arguments when the set of possible valid inputs is
known; for example, on command names, buffer names, and file names. 
Completion occurs when TAB, SPC or RET is typed.  *Note Completion::.

Continuation Line
When a line of text is longer than the width of the screen, it takes
up more than one screen line when displayed.  We say that the text
line is continued, and all screen lines used for it after the first
are called continuation lines.  *Note Continuation: Basic.

ASCII characters with octal codes 0 through 037, and also code 0177,
do not have graphic images assigned to them.  These are the control
characters.  Any control character can be typed by holding down the
CTRL key and typing some other character; some have special keys on
the keyboard.  RET, TAB, ESC, LFD and DEL are all control characters.
*Note Characters::.

A copyleft is a notice giving the public legal permission to
redistribute a program or other work of art.  Copylefts are used by
leftists to enrich the public just as copyrights are used by
rightists to gain power over the public.

Current Buffer
The current buffer in Emacs is the Emacs buffer on which most editing
commands operate.  You can select any Emacs buffer as the current one.
*Note Buffers::.

Current Line
The line point is on (*note Point::.).

Current Paragraph
The paragraph that point is in.  If point is between paragraphs, the
current paragraph is the one that follows point.  *Note Paragraphs::.

Current Defun
The defun (q.v.) that point is in.  If point is between defuns, the
current defun is the one that follows point.  *Note Defuns::.

The cursor is the rectangle on the screen which indicates the
position called point (q.v.) at which insertion and deletion takes
place.  The cursor is on or under the character that follows point. 
Often people speak of `the cursor' when, strictly speaking, they mean
`point'.  *Note Cursor: Basic.

Customization is making minor changes in the way Emacs works.  It is
often done by setting variables (*note Variables::.) or by rebinding
keys (*note Keymaps::.).

Default Argument
The default for an argument is the value that will be assumed if you
do not specify one.  When the minibuffer is used to read an argument,
the default argument is used if you just type RET.  *Note Minibuffer::.

Default Directory
When you specify a file name that does not start with `/' or `~', it
is interpreted relative to the current buffer's default directory. 
*Note Default Directory: Minibuffer File.

A defun is a list at the top level of parenthesis or bracket
structure in a program.  It is so named because most such lists in
Lisp programs are calls to the Lisp function `defun'.  *Note Defuns::.

DEL is a character that runs the command to delete one character of
text.  *Note DEL: Basic.

Deletion means erasing text without saving it.  Emacs deletes text
only when it is expected not to be worth saving (all whitespace, or
only one character).  The alternative is killing (q.v.).  *Note
Deletion: Killing.

Deletion of Files
Deleting a file means erasing it from the file system.  *Note Misc
File Ops::.

Deletion of Messages
Deleting a message means flagging it to be eliminated from your mail
file.  This can be undone by undeletion until the mail file is
expunged.  *Note Rmail Deletion::.

Deletion of Windows
Deleting a window means eliminating it from the screen.  Other
windows expand to use up the space.  The deleted window can never
come back, but no actual text is thereby lost.  *Note Windows::.

Files in the Unix file system are grouped into file directories. 
*Note Directories: ListDir.

Dired is the Emacs facility that displays the contents of a file
directory and allows you to "edit the directory", performing
operations on the files in the directory.  *Note Dired::.

Disabled Command
A disabled command is one that you may not run without special
confirmation.  The usual reason for disabling a command is that it is
confusing for beginning users.  *Note Disabling::.

Dribble File
A file into which Emacs writes all the characters that the user types
on the keyboard.  Dribble files are used to make a record for
debugging Emacs bugs.  Emacs does not make a dribble file unless you
tell it to.  *Note Bugs::.

Echo Area
The echo area is the bottom line of the screen, used for echoing the
arguments to commands, for asking questions, and printing brief
messages (including error messages).  *Note Echo Area::.

Echoing is acknowledging the receipt of commands by displaying them
(in the echo area).  Emacs never echoes single-character keys; longer
keys echo only if you pause while typing them.

An error occurs when an Emacs command cannot execute in the current
circumstances.  When an error occurs, execution of the command stops
(unless the command has been programmed to do otherwise) and Emacs
reports the error by printing an error message (q.v.).  Type-ahead is
discarded.  Then Emacs is ready to read another editing command.

Error Messages
Error messages are single lines of output printed by Emacs when the
user asks for something impossible to do (such as, killing text
forward when point is at the end of the buffer).  They appear in the
echo area, accompanied by a beep.

ESC is a character, used to end incremental searches and as a prefix
for typing Meta characters on keyboards lacking a META key.  Unlike
the META key (which, like the SHIFT key, is held down while another
character is typed), the ESC key is pressed once and applies to the
next character typed.

Fill Prefix
The fill prefix is a string that should be expected at the beginning
of each line when filling is done.  It is not regarded as part of the
text to be filled.  *Note Filling::.

Filling text means moving text from line to line so that all the
lines are approximately the same length.  *Note Filling::.

Global means `independent of the current environment; in effect
throughout Emacs'.  It is the opposite of local (q.v.).  Particular
examples of the use of `global' appear below.

Global Abbrev
A global definition of an abbrev (q.v.) is effective in all major
modes that do not have local (q.v.) definitions for the same abbrev. 
*Note Abbrevs::.

Global Keymap
The global keymap (q.v.) contains key bindings that are in effect
except when overridden by local key bindings in a major mode's local
keymap (q.v.).  *Note Keymaps::.

Global Substitution
Global substitution means replacing each occurrence of one string by
another string through a large amount of text.  *Note Replace::.

Global Variable
The global value of a variable (q.v.) takes effect in all buffers
that do not have their own local (q.v.) values for the variable. 
*Note Variables::.

Graphic Character
Graphic characters are those assigned pictorial images rather than
just names.  All the non-Meta (q.v.) characters except for the
Control (q.v.) characters are graphic characters.  These include
letters, digits, punctuation, and spaces; they do not include RET or
ESC.  In Emacs, typing a graphic character inserts that character (in
ordinary editing modes).  *Note Basic Editing: Basic.

Grinding means adjusting the indentation in a program to fit the
nesting structure.  *Note Grinding: Indentation.

Hardcopy means printed output.  Emacs has commands for making printed
listings of text in Emacs buffers.  *Note Hardcopy::.

You can type HELP at any time to ask what options you have, or to ask
what any command does.  HELP is really `Control-h'.  *Note Help::.

An inbox is a file in which mail is delivered by the operating system.
Rmail transfers mail from inboxes to mail files (q.v.) in which the
mail is then stored permanently or until explicitly deleted.  *Note
Rmail Inbox::.

Indentation means blank space at the beginning of a line.  Most
programming languages have conventions for using indentation to
illuminate the structure of the program, and Emacs has special
features to help you set up the correct indentation.  *Note

Insertion means copying text into the buffer, either from the
keyboard or from some other place in Emacs.

Justification means adding extra spaces to lines of text to make them
come exactly to a specified width.  *Note Justification: Filling.

Keyboard Macros
Keyboard macros are a way of defining new Emacs commands from
sequences of existing ones, with no need to write a Lisp program. 
*Note Keyboard Macros::.

A key is a sequence of characters that, when input to Emacs, specify
or begin to specify a single action for Emacs to perform.  That is,
the sequence is not more than a single unit.  If the key is enough to
specify one action, it is a complete key (q.v.); if it is less than
enough, it is a prefix key (q.v.).  *Note Keys::.

The keymap is the data structure that records the bindings (q.v.) of
keys to the commands that they run.  For example, the keymap binds
the character `C-n' to the command function `next-line'.  *Note

Kill Ring
The kill ring is where all text you have killed recently is saved. 
You can reinsert any of the killed text still in the ring; this is
called yanking (q.v.).  *Note Yanking::.

Killing means erasing text and saving it on the kill ring so it can
be yanked (q.v.) later.  Some other systems call this "cutting". 
Most Emacs commands to erase text do killing, as opposed to deletion
(q.v.).  *Note Killing::.

Killing Jobs
Killing a job (such as, an invocation of Emacs) means making it cease
to exist.  Any data within it, if not saved in a file, is lost. 
*Note Exiting::.

A list is, approximately, a text string beginning with an open
parenthesis and ending with the matching close parenthesis.  In C
mode and other non-Lisp modes, groupings surrounded by other kinds of
matched delimiters appropriate to the language, such as braces, are
also considered lists.  Emacs has special commands for many
operations on lists.  *Note Lists::.

Local means `in effect only in a particular context'; the relevant
kind of context is a particular function execution, a particular
buffer, or a particular major mode.  It is the opposite of `global'
(q.v.).  Specific uses of `local' in Emacs terminology appear below.

Local Abbrev
A local abbrev definition is effective only if a particular major
mode is selected.  In that major mode, it overrides any global
definition for the same abbrev.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Local Keymap
A local keymap is used in a particular major mode; the key bindings
(q.v.) in the current local keymap override global bindings of the
same keys.  *Note Keymaps::.

Local Variable
A local value of a variable (q.v.) applies to only one buffer.  *Note

`M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for META, one of
the modifier keys that can accompany any character.  *Note

`M-C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
Control-Meta; it means the same thing as `C-M-'.  If your terminal
lacks a real META key, you type a Control-Meta character by typing
ESC and then typing the corresponding Control character.  *Note C-M-:

`M-x' is the key which is used to call an Emacs command by name. 
This is how commands that are not bound to keys are called.  *Note

Mail means messages sent from one user to another through the
computer system, to be read at the recipient's convenience.  Emacs
has commands for composing and sending mail, and for reading and
editing the mail you have received.  *Note Sending Mail::.  *Note
Rmail::, for how to read mail.

Mail File
A mail file is a file which is edited using Rmail and in which Rmail
stores mail.  *Note Rmail::.

Major Mode
The major modes are a mutually exclusive set of options each of which
configures Emacs for editing a certain sort of text.  Ideally, each
programming language has its own major mode.  *Note Major Modes::.

The mark points to a position in the text.  It specifies one end of
the region (q.v.), point being the other end.  Many commands operate
on all the text from point to the mark.  *Note Mark::.

Mark Ring
The mark ring is used to hold several recent previous locations of
the mark, just in case you want to move back to them.  *Note Mark

See `mail'.

Meta is the name of a modifier bit which a command character may have.
It is present in a character if the character is typed with the META
key held down.  Such characters are given names that start with
`Meta-'.  For example, `Meta-<' is typed by holding down META and at
the same time typing `<' (which itself is done, on most terminals, by
holding down SHIFT and typing `,').  *Note Meta: Characters.

Meta Character
A Meta character is one whose character code includes the Meta bit.

The minibuffer is the window that appears when necessary inside the
echo area (q.v.), used for reading arguments to commands.  *Note

Minor Mode
A minor mode is an optional feature of Emacs which can be switched on
or off independently of all other features.  Each minor mode has a
command to turn it on or off.  *Note Minor Modes::.

Mode Line
The mode line is the line at the bottom of each text window (q.v.),
which gives status information on the buffer displayed in that window.
*Note Mode Line::.

Modified Buffer
A buffer (q.v.) is modified if its text has been changed since the
last time the buffer was saved (or since when it was created, if it
has never been saved).  *Note Saving::.

Moving Text
Moving text means erasing it from one place and inserting it in
another.  This is done by killing (q.v.) and then yanking (q.v.). 
*Note Killing::.

Named Mark
A named mark is a register (q.v.) in its role of recording a location
in text so that you can move point to that location.  *Note

Narrowing means creating a restriction (q.v.) that limits editing in
the current buffer to only a part of the text in the buffer.  Text
outside that part is inaccessible to the user until the boundaries
are widened again, but it is still there, and saving the file saves
it all.  *Note Narrowing::.

LFD characters in the buffer terminate lines of text and are called
newlines.  *Note Newline: Characters.

Numeric Argument
A numeric argument is a number, specified before a command, to change
the effect of the command.  Often the numeric argument serves as a
repeat count.  *Note Arguments::.

An option is a variable (q.v.) that exists so that you can customize
Emacs by giving it a new value.  *Note Variables::.

Overwrite Mode
Overwrite mode is a minor mode.  When it is enabled, ordinary text
characters replace the existing text after point rather than pushing
it to the right.  *Note Minor Modes::.

A page is a unit of text, delimited by formfeed characters (ASCII
Control-L, code 014) coming at the beginning of a line.  Some Emacs
commands are provided for moving over and operating on pages.  *Note

Paragraphs are the medium-size unit of English text.  There are
special Emacs commands for moving over and operating on paragraphs. 
*Note Paragraphs::.

We say that Emacs parses words or expressions in the text being
edited.  Really, all it knows how to do is find the other end of a
word or expression.  *Note Syntax::.

Point is the place in the buffer at which insertion and deletion
occur.  Point is considered to be between two characters, not at one
character.  The terminal's cursor (q.v.) indicates the location of
point.  *Note Point: Basic.

Prefix Key
A prefix key is a key (q.v.) whose sole function is to introduce a
set of multi-character keys.  `Control-x' is an example of prefix
key; thus, any two-character sequence starting with `C-x' is also a
legitimate key.  *Note Keys::.

Primary Mail File
Your primary mail file is the file named `RMAIL' in your home
directory, where all mail that you receive is stored by Rmail unless
you make arrangements to do otherwise.  *Note Rmail::.

A prompt is text printed to ask the user for input.  Printing a
prompt is called prompting.  Emacs prompts always appear in the echo
area (q.v.).  One kind of prompting happens when the minibuffer is
used to read an argument (*note Minibuffer::.); the echoing which
happens when you pause in the middle of typing a multicharacter key
is also a kind of prompting (*note Echo Area::.).

Quitting means cancelling a partially typed command or a running
command, using `C-g'.  *Note Quitting::.

Quoting means depriving a character of its usual special significance.
In Emacs this is usually done with `Control-q'.  What constitutes
special significance depends on the context and on convention.  For
example, an "ordinary" character as an Emacs command inserts itself;
so in this context, a special character is any character that does
not normally insert itself (such as DEL, for example), and quoting it
makes it insert itself as if it were not special.  Not all contexts
allow quoting.  *Note Quoting: Basic.

Read-only Buffer
A read-only buffer is one whose text you are not allowed to change. 
Normally Emacs makes buffers read-only when they contain text which
has a special significance to Emacs; for example, Dired buffers. 
Visiting a file that is write protected also makes a read-only buffer.
*Note Buffers::.

Recursive Editing Level
A recursive editing level is a state in which part of the execution
of a command involves asking the user to edit some text.  This text
may or may not be the same as the text to which the command was
applied.  The mode line indicates recursive editing levels with
square brackets (`[' and `]').  *Note Recursive Edit::.

Redisplay is the process of correcting the image on the screen to
correspond to changes that have been made in the text being edited. 
*Note Redisplay: Screen.

See `regular expression'.

The region is the text between point (q.v.) and the mark (q.v.). 
Many commands operate on the text of the region.  *Note Region: Mark.

Registers are named slots in which text or buffer positions or
rectangles can be saved for later use.  *Note Registers::.

Regular Expression
A regular expression is a pattern that can match various text
strings; for example, `l[0-9]+' matches `l' followed by one or more
digits.  *Note Regexps::.

See `global substitution'.

A buffer's restriction is the amount of text, at the beginning or the
end of the buffer, that is temporarily invisible and inaccessible. 
Giving a buffer a nonzero amount of restriction is called narrowing
(q.v.).  *Note Narrowing::.

RET is a character than in Emacs runs the command to insert a newline
into the text.  It is also used to terminate most arguments read in
the minibuffer (q.v.).  *Note Return: Characters.

Saving a buffer means copying its text into the file that was visited
(q.v.) in that buffer.  This is the way text in files actually gets
changed by your Emacs editing.  *Note Saving::.

Scrolling means shifting the text in the Emacs window so as to see a
different part of the buffer.  *Note Scrolling: Display.

Searching means moving point to the next occurrence of a specified
string.  *Note Search::.

Selecting a buffer means making it the current (q.v.) buffer.  *Note
Selecting: Buffers.

Self-documentation is the feature of Emacs which can tell you what
any command does, or give you a list of all commands related to a
topic you specify.  You ask for self-documentation with the help
character, `C-h'.  *Note Help::.

Emacs has commands for moving by or killing by sentences.  *Note

A sexp (short for `s-expression') is the basic syntactic unit of Lisp
in its textual form: either a list, or Lisp atom.  Many Emacs
commands operate on sexps.  The term `sexp' is generalized to
languages other than Lisp, to mean a syntactically recognizable
expression.  *Note Sexps: Lists.

Simultaneous Editing
Simultaneous editing means two users modifying the same file at once.
Simultaneous editing if not detected can cause one user to lose his
work.  Emacs detects all cases of simultaneous editing and warns the
user to investigate them.  *Note Simultaneous Editing: Interlocking.

A string is a kind of Lisp data object which contains a sequence of
characters.  Many Emacs variables are intended to have strings as
values.  The Lisp syntax for a string consists of the characters in
the string with a `"' before and another `"' after.  A `"' that is
part of the string must be written as `\"' and a `\' that is part of
the string must be written as `\\'.  All other characters, including
newline, can be included just by writing them inside the string;
however, escape sequences as in C, such as `\n' for newline or `\241'
using an octal character code, are allowed as well.

String Substitution
See `global substitution'.

Syntax Table
The syntax table tells Emacs which characters are part of a word,
which characters balance each other like parentheses, etc.  *Note

Tag Table
A tag table is a file that serves as an index to the function
definitions in one or more other files.  *Note Tags::.

Termscript File
A termscript file contains a record of all characters sent by Emacs
to the terminal.  It is used for tracking down bugs in Emacs redisplay.
Emacs does not make a termscript file unless you tell it to.  *Note

Two meanings (*note Text::.):

   * Data consisting of a sequence of characters, as opposed to
     binary numbers, images, graphics commands, executable programs,
     and the like.  The contents of an Emacs buffer are always text
     in this sense.

   * Data consisting of written human language, as opposed to
     programs, or following the stylistic conventions of human

Top Level
Top level is the normal state of Emacs, in which you are editing the
text of the file you have visited.  You are at top level whenever you
are not in a recursive editing level (q.v.) or the minibuffer (q.v.),
and not in the middle of a command.  You can get back to top level by
aborting (q.v.) and quitting (q.v.).  *Note Quitting::.

Transposing two units of text means putting each one into the place
formerly occupied by the other.  There are Emacs commands to
transpose two adjacent characters, words, sexps (q.v.) or lines
(*note Transpose::.).

Truncating text lines in the display means leaving out any text on a
line that does not fit within the right margin of the window
displaying it.  See also `continuation line'.  *Note Truncation: Basic.

Undoing means making your previous editing go in reverse, bringing
back the text that existed earlier in the editing session.  *Note

A variable is an object in Lisp that can store an arbitrary value. 
Emacs uses some variables for internal purposes, and has others
(known as `options' (q.v.)) just so that you can set their values to
control the behavior of Emacs.  The variables used in Emacs that you
are likely to be interested in are listed in the Variables Index in
this manual.  *Note Variables::, for information on variables.

Visiting a file means loading its contents into a buffer (q.v.) where
they can be edited.  *Note Visiting::.

Whitespace is any run of consecutive formatting characters (space,
tab, newline, and backspace).

Widening is removing any restriction (q.v.) on the current buffer; it
is the opposite of narrowing (q.v.).  *Note Narrowing::.

Emacs divides the screen into one or more windows, each of which can
display the contents of one buffer (q.v.) at any time.  *Note
Screen::, for basic information on how Emacs uses the screen.  *Note
Windows::, for commands to control the use of windows.

Word Abbrev
Synonymous with `abbrev'.

Word Search
Word search is searching for a sequence of words, considering the
punctuation between them as insignificant.  *Note Word Search::.

Yanking means reinserting text previously killed.  It can be used to
undo a mistaken kill, or for copying or moving text.  Some other
systems call this "pasting".  *Note Yanking::.

File: emacs,  Node: Key Index,  Next: Command Index,  Prev: Glossary,  Up: Top

Key (Character) Index

* Menu:

* ! (query-replace): Query Replace.
* " (TeX mode): TeX Editing.
* , (query-replace): Query Replace.
* . (Rmail): Rmail Scrolling.
* . (query-replace): Query Replace.
* > (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* C-M-@: Lists.
* C-M-@: Marking Objects.
* C-M-\: Multi-line Indent.
* C-M-\: Indentation Commands.
* C-M-a: Defuns.
* C-M-a (Fortran mode): Fortran Motion.
* C-M-b: Lists.
* C-M-c: Recursive Edit.
* C-M-d: Lists.
* C-M-e: Defuns.
* C-M-e (Fortran mode): Fortran Motion.
* C-M-f: Lists.
* C-M-h: Defuns.
* C-M-h: Marking Objects.
* C-M-h (Fortran mode): Fortran Motion.
* C-M-k: Killing.
* C-M-k: Lists.
* C-M-l (Rmail): Rmail Make Summary.
* C-M-l (Rmail): Rmail Labels.
* C-M-n: Lists.
* C-M-n (Rmail): Rmail Labels.
* C-M-o: Indentation Commands.
* C-M-p: Lists.
* C-M-p (Rmail): Rmail Labels.
* C-M-q: Multi-line Indent.
* C-M-q (Fortran mode): ForIndent Commands.
* C-M-r (Rmail): Rmail Make Summary.
* C-M-s: Regexp Search.
* C-M-t: Lists.
* C-M-t: Transpose.
* C-M-u: Lists.
* C-M-v: Minibuffer Edit.
* C-M-v: Other Window.
* C-M-w: Appending Kills.
* C-M-x: External Lisp.
* C-M-x: Lisp Eval.
* C-SPC: Setting Mark.
* C-]: Quitting.
* C-]: Recursive Edit.
* C-_: Undo.
* C-a: Basic.
* C-b: Basic.
* C-c: Keys.
* C-c ' (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c . (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c / (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c ; (Fortran mode): Fortran Comments.
* C-c < (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c > (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c C-\ (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-b (Outline mode): Outline Motion.
* C-c C-b (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c C-b (TeX mode): TeX Print.
* C-c C-c (Edit Abbrevs): Editing Abbrevs.
* C-c C-c (Edit Tab Stops): Tab Stops.
* C-c C-c (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-c (Occur mode): Other Repeating Search.
* C-c C-c (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-d (Picture mode): Basic Picture.
* C-c C-d (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-f (LaTeX mode): TeX Editing.
* C-c C-f (Outline mode): Outline Motion.
* C-c C-f (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c C-f C-c (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-f C-s (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-f C-t (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-h (Outline mode): Outline Visibility.
* C-c C-i (Outline mode): Outline Visibility.
* C-c C-k (Picture mode): Rectangles in Picture.
* C-c C-k (TeX mode): TeX Print.
* C-c C-l (TeX mode): TeX Print.
* C-c C-n (Fortran mode): Fortran Motion.
* C-c C-n (Outline mode): Outline Motion.
* C-c C-o (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-p (Fortran mode): Fortran Motion.
* C-c C-p (Outline mode): Outline Motion.
* C-c C-p (TeX mode): TeX Print.
* C-c C-q (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-q (TeX mode): TeX Print.
* C-c C-r (Fortran mode): Fortran Columns.
* C-c C-r (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-r (TeX mode): TeX Print.
* C-c C-s (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-s (Outline mode): Outline Visibility.
* C-c C-u (Outline mode): Outline Motion.
* C-c C-u (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-w (Fortran mode): Fortran Columns.
* C-c C-w (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-w (Picture mode): Rectangles in Picture.
* C-c C-w (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-x (Picture mode): Rectangles in Picture.
* C-c C-y (Mail mode): Rmail Reply.
* C-c C-y (Mail mode): Mail Mode.
* C-c C-y (Picture mode): Rectangles in Picture.
* C-c C-y (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c C-z (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* C-c TAB (Picture mode): Tabs in Picture.
* C-c \ (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c ^ (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-c ` (Picture mode): Insert in Picture.
* C-d: Killing.
* C-d (Rmail): Rmail Deletion.
* C-e: Basic.
* C-f: Basic.
* C-g: Minibuffer.
* C-h: Keys.
* C-h C-c: Help.
* C-h C-d: Help.
* C-h C-w: Help.
* C-h a: Help.
* C-h b: Help.
* C-h c: Help.
* C-h f: Help.
* C-h f: Documentation.
* C-h i: Help.
* C-h k: Help.
* C-h l: Help.
* C-h m: Help.
* C-h n: Help.
* C-h s: Syntax Change.
* C-h t: Basic.
* C-h t: Help.
* C-h v: Documentation.
* C-h v: Help.
* C-h v: Examining.
* C-h w: Help.
* C-k: Killing.
* C-k: Killing.
* C-l: Scrolling.
* C-l: Basic.
* C-l (query-replace): Query Replace.
* C-n: Basic.
* C-n (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* C-o: Blank Lines.
* C-o (Rmail): Rmail Output.
* C-p: Basic.
* C-p (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* C-q: Basic.
* C-r: Incremental Search.
* C-r (query-replace): Query Replace.
* C-s: Incremental Search.
* C-t: Basic.
* C-t: Transpose.
* C-u: Arguments.
* C-u - C-x ;: Comments.
* C-u C-@: Mark Ring.
* C-u C-SPC: Mark Ring.
* C-u TAB: Multi-line Indent.
* C-v: Scrolling.
* C-w: Killing.
* C-w (query-replace): Query Replace.
* C-x: Keys.
* C-x $: Selective Display.
* C-x (: Basic Kbd Macro.
* C-x ): Basic Kbd Macro.
* C-x +: Defining Abbrevs.
* C-x -: Defining Abbrevs.
* C-x .: Fill Prefix.
* C-x /: RegPos.
* C-x 0: Change Window.
* C-x 1: Change Window.
* C-x 2: Split Window.
* C-x 4: Pop Up Window.
* C-x 4 .: Find Tag.
* C-x 4 b: Select Buffer.
* C-x 4 d: Dired Enter.
* C-x 4 f: Visiting.
* C-x 4 m: Sending Mail.
* C-x 5: Split Window.
* C-x ;: Comments.
* C-x <: Horizontal Scrolling.
* C-x =: Position Info.
* C-x >: Horizontal Scrolling.
* C-x }: Change Window.
* C-x C-a: Defining Abbrevs.
* C-x C-b: List Buffers.
* C-x C-c: Exiting.
* C-x C-d: ListDir.
* C-x C-e: Lisp Eval.
* C-x C-f: Visiting.
* C-x C-h: Defining Abbrevs.
* C-x C-l: Case.
* C-x C-o: Killing.
* C-x C-o: Blank Lines.
* C-x C-p: Marking Objects.
* C-x C-p: Pages.
* C-x C-q: Misc Buffer.
* C-x C-s: Saving.
* C-x C-t: Transpose.
* C-x C-u: Case.
* C-x C-v: Visiting.
* C-x C-w: Saving.
* C-x C-x: Setting Mark.
* C-x DEL: Killing.
* C-x DEL: Kill Errors.
* C-x DEL: Sentences.
* C-x ESC: Repetition.
* C-x TAB: Indentation Commands.
* C-x [: Pages.
* C-x ]: Pages.
* C-x ^: Change Window.
* C-x `: Compilation.
* C-x a: Accumulating Text.
* C-x b: Select Buffer.
* C-x d: Dired Enter.
* C-x e: Basic Kbd Macro.
* C-x f: Fill Commands.
* C-x g: RegText.
* C-x h: Marking Objects.
* C-x j: RegPos.
* C-x k: Kill Buffer.
* C-x l: Pages.
* C-x m: Sending Mail.
* C-x n: Narrowing.
* C-x o: Other Window.
* C-x q: Kbd Macro Query.
* C-x s: Saving.
* C-x u: Undo.
* C-x w: Narrowing.
* C-x x: RegText.
* C-y: Kill Ring.
* C-z: Exiting.
* DEL: Basic.
* DEL: Major Modes.
* DEL: Program Modes.
* DEL: Killing.
* DEL: Kill Errors.
* DEL (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* DEL (Rmail): Rmail Scrolling.
* DEL (query-replace): Query Replace.
* ESC: Keys.
* ESC (query-replace): Query Replace.
* Help: Help.
* LFD: Basic Indent.
* LFD: Major Modes.
* LFD (TeX mode): TeX Editing.
* M-!: Single Shell.
* M-$: Spelling.
* M-%: Query Replace.
* M-': Expanding Abbrevs.
* M-(: Balanced Editing.
* M-): Balanced Editing.
* M-,: Tags Search.
* M-.: Find Tag.
* M-/: Dynamic Abbrevs.
* M-1: Arguments.
* M-;: Comments.
* M-<: Basic.
* M-=: Position Info.
* M->: Basic.
* M-?: Nroff Mode.
* M-@: Words.
* M-@: Marking Objects.
* M--: Arguments.
* M-- M-c: Fixing Case.
* M-- M-l: Fixing Case.
* M-- M-u: Fixing Case.
* M-{ (TeX mode): TeX Editing.
* M-} (TeX mode): TeX Editing.
* M-DEL: Killing.
* M-DEL: Kill Errors.
* M-DEL: Words.
* M-ESC: Lisp Eval.
* M-LFD: Comments.
* M-LFD (Fortran mode): ForIndent Commands.
* M-SPC: Killing.
* M-TAB: Lisp Completion.
* M-TAB: Tabs in Picture.
* M-[: Paragraphs.
* M-\: Indentation Commands.
* M-\: Killing.
* M-]: Paragraphs.
* M-^: Indentation Commands.
* M-^: Killing.
* M-a: Sentences.
* M-b: Words.
* M-c: Case.
* M-d: Killing.
* M-d: Words.
* M-e: Sentences.
* M-f: Words.
* M-g: Fill Commands.
* M-h: Marking Objects.
* M-h: Paragraphs.
* M-i: Tab Stops.
* M-k: Sentences.
* M-k: Killing.
* M-l: Case.
* M-m: Indentation Commands.
* M-n: Nroff Mode.
* M-n: Repetition.
* M-n (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* M-p: Nroff Mode.
* M-p: Repetition.
* M-p (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* M-q: Fill Commands.
* M-r: Basic.
* M-s: Fill Commands.
* M-s (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* M-t: Transpose.
* M-t: Words.
* M-u: Case.
* M-v: Scrolling.
* M-w: Kill Ring.
* M-x: M-x.
* M-y: Earlier Kills.
* M-z: Killing.
* M-|: Single Shell.
* M-~: Saving.
* RET: Basic.
* RET (Shell mode): Shell Mode.
* SPC: Completion.
* SPC (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* SPC (Rmail): Rmail Scrolling.
* SPC (query-replace): Query Replace.
* TAB: Indentation.
* TAB: Indentation.
* TAB: Completion.
* TAB: Major Modes.
* TAB: Basic Indent.
* TAB: Text Mode.
* ^ (query-replace): Query Replace.
* a (Rmail): Rmail Labels.
* c (Rmail): Rmail Reply.
* d (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* d (Rmail): Rmail Deletion.
* e (Rmail): Rmail Deletion.
* f (Rmail): Rmail Reply.
* g (Rmail): Rmail Files.
* h (Rmail): Rmail Make Summary.
* i (Rmail): Rmail Files.
* j (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* j (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* k (rmail): Rmail Labels.
* l (Rmail): Rmail Make Summary.
* m (Rmail): Rmail Reply.
* n (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* n (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* o (Rmail): Rmail Output.
* p (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* p (Rmail): Rmail Motion.
* q (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* q (Rmail): Rmail.
* r (Rmail): Rmail Reply.
* s (Rmail): Rmail.
* t (Rmail): Rmail Editing.
* u (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.
* u (Rmail): Rmail Deletion.
* w (Rmail): Rmail Editing.
* x (Rmail summary): Rmail Summary Edit.