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File: gcc.info,  Node: Standard Names,  Next: Pattern Ordering,  Prev: Constraints,  Up: Machine Desc

Standard Names for Patterns Used in Generation

   Here is a table of the instruction names that are meaningful in the
RTL generation pass of the compiler.  Giving one of these names to an
instruction pattern tells the RTL generation pass that it can use the
pattern in to accomplish a certain task.

     Here M stands for a two-letter machine mode name, in lower case.
     This instruction pattern moves data with that machine mode from
     operand 1 to operand 0.  For example, `movsi' moves full-word data.

     If operand 0 is a `subreg' with mode M of a register whose own
     mode is wider than M, the effect of this instruction is to store
     the specified value in the part of the register that corresponds
     to mode M.  The effect on the rest of the register is undefined.

     This class of patterns is special in several ways.  First of all,
     each of these names *must* be defined, because there is no other
     way to copy a datum from one place to another.

     Second, these patterns are not used solely in the RTL generation
     pass. Even the reload pass can generate move insns to copy values
     from stack slots into temporary registers.  When it does so, one
     of the operands is a hard register and the other is an operand
     that can need to be reloaded into a register.

     Therefore, when given such a pair of operands, the pattern must
     generate RTL which needs no reloading and needs no temporary
     registers--no registers other than the operands.  For example, if
     you support the pattern with a `define_expand', then in such a
     case the `define_expand' mustn't call `force_reg' or any other such
     function which might generate new pseudo registers.

     This requirement exists even for subword modes on a RISC machine
     where fetching those modes from memory normally requires several
     insns and some temporary registers.  Look in `spur.md' to see how
     the requirement can be satisfied.

     During reload a memory reference with an invalid address may be
     passed as an operand.  Such an address will be replaced with a
     valid address later in the reload pass.  In this case, nothing may
     be done with the address except to use it as it stands.  If it is
     copied, it will not be replaced with a valid address.  No attempt
     should be made to make such an address into a valid address and no
     routine (such as `change_address') that will do so may be called. 
     Note that `general_operand' will fail when applied to such an

     The global variable `reload_in_progress' (which must be explicitly
     declared if required) can be used to determine whether such special
     handling is required.

     The variety of operands that have reloads depends on the rest of
     the machine description, but typically on a RISC machine these can
     only be pseudo registers that did not get hard registers, while on
     other machines explicit memory references will get optional

     If a scratch register is required to move an object to or from
     memory, it can be allocated using `gen_reg_rtx' prior to reload. 
     But this is impossible during and after reload.  If there are
     cases needing scratch registers after reload, you must define
     `SECONDARY_OUTPUT_RELOAD_CLASS' to detect them, and provide
     patterns `reload_inM' or `reload_outM' to handle them.  *Note
     Register Classes::.

     The constraints on a `moveM' must permit moving any hard register
     to any other hard register provided that `HARD_REGNO_MODE_OK'
     permits mode M in both registers and `REGISTER_MOVE_COST' applied
     to their classes returns a value of 2.

     It is obligatory to support floating point `moveM' instructions
     into and out of any registers that can hold fixed point values,
     because unions and structures (which have modes `SImode' or
     `DImode') can be in those registers and they may have floating
     point members.

     There may also be a need to support fixed point `moveM'
     instructions in and out of floating point registers. 
     Unfortunately, I have forgotten why this was so, and I don't know
     whether it is still true.  If `HARD_REGNO_MODE_OK' rejects fixed
     point values in floating point registers, then the constraints of
     the fixed point `moveM' instructions must be designed to avoid
     ever trying to reload into a floating point register.

     Like `movM', but used when a scratch register is required to move
     between operand 0 and operand 1.  Operand 2 describes the scratch
     register.  See the discussion of the `SECONDARY_RELOAD_CLASS'
     macro in *note Register Classes::..

     Like `movM' except that if operand 0 is a `subreg' with mode M of
     a register whose natural mode is wider, the `movstrictM'
     instruction is guaranteed not to alter any of the register except
     the part which belongs to mode M.

     Load several consecutive memory locations into consecutive
     registers. Operand 0 is the first of the consecutive registers,
     operand 1 is the first memory location, and operand 2 is a
     constant: the number of consecutive registers.

     Define this only if the target machine really has such an
     instruction; do not define this if the most efficient way of
     loading consecutive registers from memory is to do them one at a

     On some machines, there are restrictions as to which consecutive
     registers can be stored into memory, such as particular starting or
     ending register numbers or only a range of valid counts.  For those
     machines, use a `define_expand' (*note Expander Definitions::.)
     and make the pattern fail if the restrictions are not met.

     Write the generated insn as a `parallel' with elements being a
     `set' of one register from the appropriate memory location (you may
     also need `use' or `clobber' elements).  Use a `match_parallel'
     (*note RTL Template::.) to recognize the insn.  See `a29k.md' and
     `rs6000.md' for examples of the use of this insn pattern.

     Similar to `load_multiple', but store several consecutive registers
     into consecutive memory locations.  Operand 0 is the first of the
     consecutive memory locations, operand 1 is the first register, and
     operand 2 is a constant: the number of consecutive registers.

     Add operand 2 and operand 1, storing the result in operand 0.  All
     operands must have mode M.  This can be used even on two-address
     machines, by means of constraints requiring operands 1 and 0 to be
     the same location.

`subM3', `mulM3'
`divM3', `udivM3', `modM3', `umodM3'
`sminM3', `smaxM3', `uminM3', `umaxM3'
`andM3', `iorM3', `xorM3'
     Similar, for other arithmetic operations.

     Multiply operands 1 and 2, which have mode `HImode', and store a
     `SImode' product in operand 0.

`mulqihi3', `mulsidi3'
     Similar widening-multiplication instructions of other widths.

`umulqihi3', `umulhisi3', `umulsidi3'
     Similar widening-multiplication instructions that do unsigned

     Signed division that produces both a quotient and a remainder.
     Operand 1 is divided by operand 2 to produce a quotient stored in
     operand 0 and a remainder stored in operand 3.

     For machines with an instruction that produces both a quotient and
     a remainder, provide a pattern for `divmodM4' but do not provide
     patterns for `divM3' and `modM3'.  This allows optimization in the
     relatively common case when both the quotient and remainder are

     If an instruction that just produces a quotient or just a remainder
     exists and is more efficient than the instruction that produces
     both, write the output routine of `divmodM4' to call
     `find_reg_note' and look for a `REG_UNUSED' note on the quotient
     or remainder and generate the appropriate instruction.

     Similar, but does unsigned division.

     Arithmetic-shift operand 1 left by a number of bits specified by
     operand 2, and store the result in operand 0.  Here M is the mode
     of operand 0 and operand 1; operand 2's mode is specified by the
     instruction pattern, and the compiler will convert the operand to
     that mode before generating the instruction.

`ashrM3', `lshlM3', `lshrM3', `rotlM3', `rotrM3'
     Other shift and rotate instructions, analogous to the `ashlM3'

     Logical and arithmetic left shift are the same.  Machines that do
     not allow negative shift counts often have only one instruction for
     shifting left.  On such machines, you should define a pattern named
     `ashlM3' and leave `lshlM3' undefined.

     Negate operand 1 and store the result in operand 0.

     Store the absolute value of operand 1 into operand 0.

     Store the square root of operand 1 into operand 0.

     The `sqrt' built-in function of C always uses the mode which
     corresponds to the C data type `double'.

     Store into operand 0 one plus the index of the least significant
     1-bit of operand 1.  If operand 1 is zero, store zero.  M is the
     mode of operand 0; operand 1's mode is specified by the instruction
     pattern, and the compiler will convert the operand to that mode
     before generating the instruction.

     The `ffs' built-in function of C always uses the mode which
     corresponds to the C data type `int'.

     Store the bitwise-complement of operand 1 into operand 0.

     Compare operand 0 and operand 1, and set the condition codes. The
     RTL pattern should look like this:

          (set (cc0) (compare (match_operand:M 0 ...)
                              (match_operand:M 1 ...)))

     Compare operand 0 against zero, and set the condition codes. The
     RTL pattern should look like this:

          (set (cc0) (match_operand:M 0 ...))

     `tstM' patterns should not be defined for machines that do not use
     `(cc0)'.  Doing so would confuse the optimizer since it would no
     longer be clear which `set' operations were comparisons. The
     `cmpM' patterns should be used instead.

     Block move instruction.  The addresses of the destination and
     source strings are the first two operands, and both are in mode
     `Pmode'. The number of bytes to move is the third operand, in mode

     The fourth operand is the known shared alignment of the source and
     destination, in the form of a `const_int' rtx.  Thus, if the
     compiler knows that both source and destination are word-aligned,
     it may provide the value 4 for this operand.

     These patterns need not give special consideration to the
     possibility that the source and destination strings might overlap.

     Block compare instruction, with five operands.  Operand 0 is the
     output; it has mode M.  The remaining four operands are like the
     operands of `movstrM'.  The two memory blocks specified are
     compared byte by byte in lexicographic order.  The effect of the
     instruction is to store a value in operand 0 whose sign indicates
     the result of the comparison.

     Convert signed integer operand 1 (valid for fixed point mode M) to
     floating point mode N and store in operand 0 (which has mode N).

     Convert unsigned integer operand 1 (valid for fixed point mode M)
     to floating point mode N and store in operand 0 (which has mode N).

     Convert operand 1 (valid for floating point mode M) to fixed point
     mode N as a signed number and store in operand 0 (which has mode
     N).  This instruction's result is defined only when the value of
     operand 1 is an integer.

     Convert operand 1 (valid for floating point mode M) to fixed point
     mode N as an unsigned number and store in operand 0 (which has
     mode N).  This instruction's result is defined only when the value
     of operand 1 is an integer.

     Convert operand 1 (valid for floating point mode M) to an integer
     value, still represented in floating point mode M, and store it in
     operand 0 (valid for floating point mode M).

     Like `fixMN2' but works for any floating point value of mode M by
     converting the value to an integer.

     Like `fixunsMN2' but works for any floating point value of mode M
     by converting the value to an integer.

     Truncate operand 1 (valid for mode M) to mode N and store in
     operand 0 (which has mode N).  Both modes must be fixed point or
     both floating point.

     Sign-extend operand 1 (valid for mode M) to mode N and store in
     operand 0 (which has mode N).  Both modes must be fixed point or
     both floating point.

     Zero-extend operand 1 (valid for mode M) to mode N and store in
     operand 0 (which has mode N).  Both modes must be fixed point.

     Extract a bit field from operand 1 (a register or memory operand),
     where operand 2 specifies the width in bits and operand 3 the
     starting bit, and store it in operand 0.  Operand 0 must have mode
     `word_mode'. Operand 1 may have mode `byte_mode' or `word_mode';
     often `word_mode' is allowed only for registers.  Operands 2 and 3
     must be valid for `word_mode'.

     The RTL generation pass generates this instruction only with
     constants for operands 2 and 3.

     The bit-field value is sign-extended to a full word integer before
     it is stored in operand 0.

     Like `extv' except that the bit-field value is zero-extended.

     Store operand 3 (which must be valid for `word_mode') into a bit
     field in operand 0, where operand 1 specifies the width in bits and
     operand 2 the starting bit.  Operand 0 may have mode `byte_mode' or
     `word_mode'; often `word_mode' is allowed only for registers.
     Operands 1 and 2 must be valid for `word_mode'.

     The RTL generation pass generates this instruction only with
     constants for operands 1 and 2.

     Store zero or nonzero in the operand according to the condition
     codes. Value stored is nonzero iff the condition COND is true.
     COND is the name of a comparison operation expression code, such
     as `eq', `lt' or `leu'.

     You specify the mode that the operand must have when you write the
     `match_operand' expression.  The compiler automatically sees which
     mode you have used and supplies an operand of that mode.

     The value stored for a true condition must have 1 as its low bit,
     or else must be negative.  Otherwise the instruction is not
     suitable and you should omit it from the machine description.  You
     describe to the compiler exactly which value is stored by defining
     the macro `STORE_FLAG_VALUE' (*note Misc::.).  If a description
     cannot be found that can be used for all the `sCOND' patterns, you
     should omit those operations from the machine description.

     These operations may fail, but should do so only in relatively
     uncommon cases; if they would fail for common cases involving
     integer comparisons, it is best to omit these patterns.

     If these operations are omitted, the compiler will usually
     generate code that copies the constant one to the target and
     branches around an assignment of zero to the target.  If this code
     is more efficient than the potential instructions used for the
     `sCOND' pattern followed by those required to convert the result
     into a 1 or a zero in `SImode', you should omit the `sCOND'
     operations from the machine description.

     Conditional branch instruction.  Operand 0 is a `label_ref' that
     refers to the label to jump to.  Jump if the condition codes meet
     condition COND.

     Some machines do not follow the model assumed here where a
     comparison instruction is followed by a conditional branch
     instruction.  In that case, the `cmpM' (and `tstM') patterns should
     simply store the operands away and generate all the required insns
     in a `define_expand' (*note Expander Definitions::.) for the
     conditional branch operations.  All calls to expand `bCOND'
     patterns are immediately preceded by calls to expand either a
     `cmpM' pattern or a `tstM' pattern.

     Machines that use a pseudo register for the condition code value,
     or where the mode used for the comparison depends on the condition
     being tested, should also use the above mechanism.  *Note Jump

     The above discussion also applies to `sCOND' patterns.

     Subroutine call instruction returning no value.  Operand 0 is the
     function to call; operand 1 is the number of bytes of arguments
     pushed (in mode `SImode', except it is normally a `const_int');
     operand 2 is the number of registers used as operands.

     On most machines, operand 2 is not actually stored into the RTL
     pattern.  It is supplied for the sake of some RISC machines which
     need to put this information into the assembler code; they can put
     it in the RTL instead of operand 1.

     Operand 0 should be a `mem' RTX whose address is the address of the
     function.  Note, however, that this address can be a `symbol_ref'
     expression even if it would not be a legitimate memory address on
     the target machine.  If it is also not a valid argument for a call
     instruction, the pattern for this operation should be a
     `define_expand' (*note Expander Definitions::.) that places the
     address into a register and uses that register in the call

     Subroutine call instruction returning a value.  Operand 0 is the
     hard register in which the value is returned.  There are three more
     operands, the same as the three operands of the `call' instruction
     (but with numbers increased by one).

     Subroutines that return `BLKmode' objects use the `call' insn.

`call_pop', `call_value_pop'
     Similar to `call' and `call_value', except used if defined and if
     `RETURN_POPS_ARGS' is non-zero.  They should emit a `parallel'
     that contains both the function call and a `set' to indicate the
     adjustment made to the frame pointer.

     For machines where `RETURN_POPS_ARGS' can be non-zero, the use of
     these patterns increases the number of functions for which the
     frame pointer can be eliminated, if desired.

     Subroutine return instruction.  This instruction pattern name
     should be defined only if a single instruction can do all the work
     of returning from a function.

     Like the `movM' patterns, this pattern is also used after the RTL
     generation phase.  In this case it is to support machines where
     multiple instructions are usually needed to return from a
     function, but some class of functions only requires one
     instruction to implement a return.  Normally, the applicable
     functions are those which do not need to save any registers or
     allocate stack space.

     For such machines, the condition specified in this pattern should
     only be true when `reload_completed' is non-zero and the function's
     epilogue would only be a single instruction.  For machines with
     register windows, the routine `leaf_function_p' may be used to
     determine if a register window push is required.

     Machines that have conditional return instructions should define
     patterns such as

          (define_insn ""
            [(set (pc)
                  (if_then_else (match_operator 0 "comparison_operator"
                                                [(cc0) (const_int 0)])

     where CONDITION would normally be the same condition specified on
     the named `return' pattern.

     No-op instruction.  This instruction pattern name should always be
     defined to output a no-op in assembler code.  `(const_int 0)' will
     do as an RTL pattern.

     An instruction to jump to an address which is operand zero. This
     pattern name is mandatory on all machines.

     Instruction to jump through a dispatch table, including bounds
     checking. This instruction takes five operands:

       1. The index to dispatch on, which has mode `SImode'.

       2. The lower bound for indices in the table, an integer constant.

       3. The total range of indices in the table--the largest index
          minus the smallest one (both inclusive).

       4. A label that precedes the table itself.

       5. A label to jump to if the index has a value outside the
          bounds. (If the machine-description macro
          `CASE_DROPS_THROUGH' is defined, then an out-of-bounds index
          drops through to the code following the jump table instead of
          jumping to this label.  In that case, this label is not
          actually used by the `casesi' instruction, but it is always
          provided as an operand.)

     The table is a `addr_vec' or `addr_diff_vec' inside of a
     `jump_insn'.  The number of elements in the table is one plus the
     difference between the upper bound and the lower bound.

     Instruction to jump to a variable address.  This is a low-level
     capability which can be used to implement a dispatch table when
     there is no `casesi' pattern.

     This pattern requires two operands: the address or offset, and a
     label which should immediately precede the jump table.  If the
     macro `CASE_VECTOR_PC_RELATIVE' is defined then the first operand
     is an offset which counts from the address of the table;
     otherwise, it is an absolute address to jump to.  In either case,
     the first operand has mode `Pmode'.

     The `tablejump' insn is always the last insn before the jump table
     it uses.  Its assembler code normally has no need to use the
     second operand, but you should incorporate it in the RTL pattern so
     that the jump optimizer will not delete the table as unreachable

     Most machines save and restore the stack pointer by copying it to
     or from an object of mode `Pmode'.  Do not define these patterns on
     such machines.

     Some machines require special handling for stack pointer saves and
     restores.  On those machines, define the patterns corresponding to
     the non-standard cases by using a `define_expand' (*note Expander
     Definitions::.) that produces the required insns.  The three types
     of saves and restores are:

       1. `save_stack_block' saves the stack pointer at the start of a
          block that allocates a variable-sized object and
          `restore_stack_block' restores the stack pointer when the
          block is exited.

       2. `save_stack_function' and `restore_stack_function' operate
          similarly for the outermost block of a function and are used
          when the function allocates variable-sized objects or calls
          `alloca'.  Only the epilogue uses the restored stack pointer,
          allowing a simpler save or restore sequence on some machines.

       3. `save_stack_nonlocal' is used in functions that contain labels
          branched to by nested functions.  It saves the stack pointer
          in such a way that the inner function can use
          `restore_stack_nonlocal' to restore the stack pointer.  The
          compiler generates code to restore the frame and argument
          pointer registers, but some machines require saving and
          restoring additional data such as register window information
          or stack backchains.  Place insns in these patterns to save
          and restore any such required data.

     When saving the stack pointer, operand 0 is the save area and
     operand 1 is the stack pointer.  The mode used to allocate the
     save area is the mode of operand 0.  You must specify an integral
     mode, or `VOIDmode' if no save area is needed for a particular
     type of save (either because no save is needed or because a
     machine-specific save area can be used).  Operand 0 is the stack
     pointer and operand 1 is the save area for restore operations.  If
     `save_stack_block' is defined, operand 0 must not be `VOIDmode'
     since these saves can be arbitrarily nested.

     A save area is a `mem' that is at a constant offset from
     `virtual_stack_vars_rtx' when the stack pointer is saved for use by
     nonlocal gotos and a `reg' in the other two cases.

     Subtract operand 0 from the stack pointer to create space for for
     dynamically allocated data.

     Do not define this pattern if all that must be done is the
     subtraction. On some machines require other operations such as
     stack probes or maintaining the back chain.  Define this pattern
     to emit those operations in addition to updating the stack pointer.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Pattern Ordering,  Next: Dependent Patterns,  Prev: Standard Names,  Up: Machine Desc

When the Order of Patterns Matters

   Sometimes an insn can match more than one instruction pattern.  Then
the pattern that appears first in the machine description is the one
used. Therefore, more specific patterns (patterns that will match fewer
things) and faster instructions (those that will produce better code
when they do match) should usually go first in the description.

   In some cases the effect of ordering the patterns can be used to hide
a pattern when it is not valid.  For example, the 68000 has an
instruction for converting a fullword to floating point and another for
converting a byte to floating point.  An instruction converting an
integer to floating point could match either one.  We put the pattern
to convert the fullword first to make sure that one will be used rather
than the other.  (Otherwise a large integer might be generated as a
single-byte immediate quantity, which would not work.) Instead of using
this pattern ordering it would be possible to make the pattern for
convert-a-byte smart enough to deal properly with any constant value.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Dependent Patterns,  Next: Jump Patterns,  Prev: Pattern Ordering,  Up: Machine Desc

Interdependence of Patterns

   Every machine description must have a named pattern for each of the
conditional branch names `bCOND'.  The recognition template must always
have the form

     (set (pc)
          (if_then_else (COND (cc0) (const_int 0))
                        (label_ref (match_operand 0 "" ""))

In addition, every machine description must have an anonymous pattern
for each of the possible reverse-conditional branches.  Their templates
look like

     (set (pc)
          (if_then_else (COND (cc0) (const_int 0))
                        (label_ref (match_operand 0 "" ""))))

They are necessary because jump optimization can turn direct-conditional
branches into reverse-conditional branches.

   It is often convenient to use the `match_operator' construct to
reduce the number of patterns that must be specified for branches.  For

     (define_insn ""
       [(set (pc)
             (if_then_else (match_operator 0 "comparison_operator"
                                           [(cc0) (const_int 0)])
                           (label_ref (match_operand 1 "" ""))))]

   In some cases machines support instructions identical except for the
machine mode of one or more operands.  For example, there may be
"sign-extend halfword" and "sign-extend byte" instructions whose
patterns are

     (set (match_operand:SI 0 ...)
          (extend:SI (match_operand:HI 1 ...)))
     (set (match_operand:SI 0 ...)
          (extend:SI (match_operand:QI 1 ...)))

Constant integers do not specify a machine mode, so an instruction to
extend a constant value could match either pattern.  The pattern it
actually will match is the one that appears first in the file.  For
correct results, this must be the one for the widest possible mode
(`HImode', here).  If the pattern matches the `QImode' instruction, the
results will be incorrect if the constant value does not actually fit
that mode.

   Such instructions to extend constants are rarely generated because
they are optimized away, but they do occasionally happen in nonoptimized

   If a constraint in a pattern allows a constant, the reload pass may
replace a register with a constant permitted by the constraint in some
cases.  Similarly for memory references.  You must ensure that the
predicate permits all objects allowed by the constraints to prevent the
compiler from crashing.

   Because of this substitution, you should not provide separate
patterns for increment and decrement instructions.  Instead, they
should be generated from the same pattern that supports
register-register add insns by examining the operands and generating
the appropriate machine instruction.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Jump Patterns,  Next: Insn Canonicalizations,  Prev: Dependent Patterns,  Up: Machine Desc

Defining Jump Instruction Patterns

   For most machines, GNU CC assumes that the machine has a condition
code. A comparison insn sets the condition code, recording the results
of both signed and unsigned comparison of the given operands.  A
separate branch insn tests the condition code and branches or not
according its value. The branch insns come in distinct signed and
unsigned flavors.  Many common machines, such as the Vax, the 68000 and
the 32000, work this way.

   Some machines have distinct signed and unsigned compare
instructions, and only one set of conditional branch instructions.  The
easiest way to handle these machines is to treat them just like the
others until the final stage where assembly code is written.  At this
time, when outputting code for the compare instruction, peek ahead at
the following branch using `next_cc0_user (insn)'.  (The variable
`insn' refers to the insn being output, in the output-writing code in
an instruction pattern.)  If the RTL says that is an unsigned branch,
output an unsigned compare; otherwise output a signed compare.  When
the branch itself is output, you can treat signed and unsigned branches

   The reason you can do this is that GNU CC always generates a pair of
consecutive RTL insns, possibly separated by `note' insns, one to set
the condition code and one to test it, and keeps the pair inviolate
until the end.

   To go with this technique, you must define the machine-description
macro `NOTICE_UPDATE_CC' to do `CC_STATUS_INIT'; in other words, no
compare instruction is superfluous.

   Some machines have compare-and-branch instructions and no condition
code. A similar technique works for them.  When it is time to "output" a
compare instruction, record its operands in two static variables.  When
outputting the branch-on-condition-code instruction that follows,
actually output a compare-and-branch instruction that uses the
remembered operands.

   It also works to define patterns for compare-and-branch instructions.
In optimizing compilation, the pair of compare and branch instructions
will be combined according to these patterns.  But this does not happen
if optimization is not requested.  So you must use one of the solutions
above in addition to any special patterns you define.

   In many RISC machines, most instructions do not affect the condition
code and there may not even be a separate condition code register.  On
these machines, the restriction that the definition and use of the
condition code be adjacent insns is not necessary and can prevent
important optimizations.  For example, on the IBM RS/6000, there is a
delay for taken branches unless the condition code register is set three
instructions earlier than the conditional branch.  The instruction
scheduler cannot perform this optimization if it is not permitted to
separate the definition and use of the condition code register.

   On these machines, do not use `(cc0)', but instead use a register to
represent the condition code.  If there is a specific condition code
register in the machine, use a hard register.  If the condition code or
comparison result can be placed in any general register, or if there are
multiple condition registers, use a pseudo register.

   On some machines, the type of branch instruction generated may
depend on the way the condition code was produced; for example, on the
68k and Sparc, setting the condition code directly from an add or
subtract instruction does not clear the overflow bit the way that a test
instruction does, so a different branch instruction must be used for
some conditional branches.  For machines that use `(cc0)', the set and
use of the condition code must be adjacent (separated only by `note'
insns) allowing flags in `cc_status' to be used. (*Note Condition
Code::.)  Also, the comparison and branch insns can be located from
each other by using the functions `prev_cc0_setter' and `next_cc0_user'.

   However, this is not true on machines that do not use `(cc0)'.  On
those machines, no assumptions can be made about the adjacency of the
compare and branch insns and the above methods cannot be used.  Instead,
we use the machine mode of the condition code register to record
different formats of the condition code register.

   Registers used to store the condition code value should have a mode
that is in class `MODE_CC'.  Normally, it will be `CCmode'.  If
additional modes are required (as for the add example mentioned above in
the Sparc), define the macro `EXTRA_CC_MODES' to list the additional
modes required (*note Condition Code::.).  Also define `EXTRA_CC_NAMES'
to list the names of those modes and `SELECT_CC_MODE' to choose a mode
given an operand of a compare.

   If it is known during RTL generation that a different mode will be
required (for example, if the machine has separate compare instructions
for signed and unsigned quantities, like most IBM processors), they can
be specified at that time.

   If the cases that require different modes would be made by
instruction combination, the macro `SELECT_CC_MODE' determines which
machine mode should be used for the comparison result.  The patterns
should be written using that mode.  To support the case of the add on
the Sparc discussed above, we have the pattern

     (define_insn ""
       [(set (reg:CC_NOOV 0)
             (compare:CC_NOOV (plus:SI (match_operand:SI 0 "register_operand" "%r")
                                       (match_operand:SI 1 "arith_operand" "rI"))
                              (const_int 0)))]

   The `SELECT_CC_MODE' macro on the Sparc returns `CC_NOOVmode' for
comparisons whose argument is a `plus'.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Insn Canonicalizations,  Next: Peephole Definitions,  Prev: Jump Patterns,  Up: Machine Desc

Canonicalization of Instructions

   There are often cases where multiple RTL expressions could represent
an operation performed by a single machine instruction.  This situation
is most commonly encountered with logical, branch, and
multiply-accumulate instructions.  In such cases, the compiler attempts
to convert these multiple RTL expressions into a single canonical form
to reduce the number of insn patterns required.

   In addition to algebraic simplifications, following canonicalizations
are performed:

   * For commutative and comparison operators, a constant is always
     made the second operand.  If a machine only supports a constant as
     the second operand, only patterns that match a constant in the
     second operand need be supplied.

     For these operators, if only one operand is a `neg', `not',
     `mult', `plus', or `minus' expression, it will be the first

   * For the `compare' operator, a constant is always the second operand
     on machines where `cc0' is used (*note Jump Patterns::.).  On other
     machines, there are rare cases where the compiler might want to
     construct a `compare' with a constant as the first operand. 
     However, these cases are not common enough for it to be worthwhile
     to provide a pattern matching a constant as the first operand
     unless the machine actually has such an instruction.

     An operand of `neg', `not', `mult', `plus', or `minus' is made the
     first operand under the same conditions as above.

   * `(minus X (const_int N))' is converted to `(plus X (const_int

   * Within address computations (i.e., inside `mem'), a left shift is
     converted into the appropriate multiplication by a power of two.

     De`Morgan's Law is used to move bitwise negation inside a bitwise
     logical-and or logical-or operation.  If this results in only one
     operand being a `not' expression, it will be the first one.

     A machine that has an instruction that performs a bitwise
     logical-and of one operand with the bitwise negation of the other
     should specify the pattern for that instruction as

          (define_insn ""
            [(set (match_operand:M 0 ...)
                  (and:M (not:M (match_operand:M 1 ...))
                               (match_operand:M 2 ...)))]

     Similarly, a pattern for a "NAND" instruction should be written

          (define_insn ""
            [(set (match_operand:M 0 ...)
                  (ior:M (not:M (match_operand:M 1 ...))
                               (not:M (match_operand:M 2 ...))))]

     In both cases, it is not necessary to include patterns for the many
     logically equivalent RTL expressions.

   * The only possible RTL expressions involving both bitwise
     exclusive-or and bitwise negation are `(xor:M X) Y)' and `(not:M
     (xor:M X Y))'.

   * The sum of three items, one of which is a constant, will only
     appear in the form

          (plus:M (plus:M X Y) CONSTANT)

   * On machines that do not use `cc0', `(compare X (const_int 0))'
     will be converted to X.

   * Equality comparisons of a group of bits (usually a single bit)
     with zero will be written using `zero_extract' rather than the
     equivalent `and' or `sign_extract' operations.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Peephole Definitions,  Next: Expander Definitions,  Prev: Insn Canonicalizations,  Up: Machine Desc

Defining Machine-Specific Peephole Optimizers

   In addition to instruction patterns the `md' file may contain
definitions of machine-specific peephole optimizations.

   The combiner does not notice certain peephole optimizations when the
data flow in the program does not suggest that it should try them.  For
example, sometimes two consecutive insns related in purpose can be
combined even though the second one does not appear to use a register
computed in the first one.  A machine-specific peephole optimizer can
detect such opportunities.

   A definition looks like this:


The last string operand may be omitted if you are not using any
machine-specific information in this machine description.  If present,
it must obey the same rules as in a `define_insn'.

   In this skeleton, INSN-PATTERN-1 and so on are patterns to match
consecutive insns.  The optimization applies to a sequence of insns when
INSN-PATTERN-1 matches the first one, INSN-PATTERN-2 matches the next,
and so on.

   Each of the insns matched by a peephole must also match a
`define_insn'.  Peepholes are checked only at the last stage just
before code generation, and only optionally.  Therefore, any insn which
would match a peephole but no `define_insn' will cause a crash in code
generation in an unoptimized compilation, or at various optimization

   The operands of the insns are matched with `match_operands',
`match_operator', and `match_dup', as usual.  What is not usual is that
the operand numbers apply to all the insn patterns in the definition. 
So, you can check for identical operands in two insns by using
`match_operand' in one insn and `match_dup' in the other.

   The operand constraints used in `match_operand' patterns do not have
any direct effect on the applicability of the peephole, but they will
be validated afterward, so make sure your constraints are general enough
to apply whenever the peephole matches.  If the peephole matches but
the constraints are not satisfied, the compiler will crash.

   It is safe to omit constraints in all the operands of the peephole;
or you can write constraints which serve as a double-check on the
criteria previously tested.

   Once a sequence of insns matches the patterns, the CONDITION is
checked.  This is a C expression which makes the final decision whether
to perform the optimization (we do so if the expression is nonzero).  If
CONDITION is omitted (in other words, the string is empty) then the
optimization is applied to every sequence of insns that matches the

   The defined peephole optimizations are applied after register
allocation is complete.  Therefore, the peephole definition can check
which operands have ended up in which kinds of registers, just by
looking at the operands.

   The way to refer to the operands in CONDITION is to write
`operands[I]' for operand number I (as matched by `(match_operand I
...)').  Use the variable `insn' to refer to the last of the insns
being matched; use `prev_nonnote_insn' to find the preceding insns.

   When optimizing computations with intermediate results, you can use
CONDITION to match only when the intermediate results are not used
elsewhere.  Use the C expression `dead_or_set_p (INSN, OP)', where INSN
is the insn in which you expect the value to be used for the last time
(from the value of `insn', together with use of `prev_nonnote_insn'),
and OP is the intermediate value (from `operands[I]').

   Applying the optimization means replacing the sequence of insns with
one new insn.  The TEMPLATE controls ultimate output of assembler code
for this combined insn.  It works exactly like the template of a
`define_insn'.  Operand numbers in this template are the same ones used
in matching the original sequence of insns.

   The result of a defined peephole optimizer does not need to match
any of the insn patterns in the machine description; it does not even
have an opportunity to match them.  The peephole optimizer definition
itself serves as the insn pattern to control how the insn is output.

   Defined peephole optimizers are run as assembler code is being
output, so the insns they produce are never combined or rearranged in
any way.

   Here is an example, taken from the 68000 machine description:

       [(set (reg:SI 15) (plus:SI (reg:SI 15) (const_int 4)))
        (set (match_operand:DF 0 "register_operand" "=f")
             (match_operand:DF 1 "register_operand" "ad"))]
       "FP_REG_P (operands[0]) && ! FP_REG_P (operands[1])"
       rtx xoperands[2];
       xoperands[1] = gen_rtx (REG, SImode, REGNO (operands[1]) + 1);
     #ifdef MOTOROLA
       output_asm_insn (\"move.l %1,(sp)\", xoperands);
       output_asm_insn (\"move.l %1,-(sp)\", operands);
       return \"fmove.d (sp)+,%0\";
       output_asm_insn (\"movel %1,sp@\", xoperands);
       output_asm_insn (\"movel %1,sp@-\", operands);
       return \"fmoved sp@+,%0\";

   The effect of this optimization is to change

     jbsr _foobar
     addql #4,sp
     movel d1,sp@-
     movel d0,sp@-
     fmoved sp@+,fp0


     jbsr _foobar
     movel d1,sp@
     movel d0,sp@-
     fmoved sp@+,fp0

   INSN-PATTERN-1 and so on look *almost* like the second operand of
`define_insn'.  There is one important difference: the second operand
of `define_insn' consists of one or more RTX's enclosed in square
brackets.  Usually, there is only one: then the same action can be
written as an element of a `define_peephole'.  But when there are
multiple actions in a `define_insn', they are implicitly enclosed in a
`parallel'.  Then you must explicitly write the `parallel', and the
square brackets within it, in the `define_peephole'.  Thus, if an insn
pattern looks like this,

     (define_insn "divmodsi4"
       [(set (match_operand:SI 0 "general_operand" "=d")
             (div:SI (match_operand:SI 1 "general_operand" "0")
                     (match_operand:SI 2 "general_operand" "dmsK")))
        (set (match_operand:SI 3 "general_operand" "=d")
             (mod:SI (match_dup 1) (match_dup 2)))]
       "divsl%.l %2,%3:%0")

then the way to mention this insn in a peephole is as follows:

         [(set (match_operand:SI 0 "general_operand" "=d")
               (div:SI (match_operand:SI 1 "general_operand" "0")
                       (match_operand:SI 2 "general_operand" "dmsK")))
          (set (match_operand:SI 3 "general_operand" "=d")
               (mod:SI (match_dup 1) (match_dup 2)))])