This is Info file gcc.info, produced by Makeinfo-1.49 from the input
file gcc.texi.

   This file documents the use and the internals of the GNU compiler.

   Copyright (C) 1988, 1989, 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
that the sections entitled "GNU General Public License" and "Protect
Your Freedom--Fight `Look And Feel'" are included exactly as in the
original, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is
distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that the sections entitled "GNU General Public
License" and "Protect Your Freedom--Fight `Look And Feel'", and this
permission notice, may be included in translations approved by the Free
Software Foundation instead of in the original English.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Environment Variables,  Next: Running Protoize,  Prev: Code Gen Options,  Up: Invoking GCC

Environment Variables Affecting GNU CC

   This section describes several environment variables that affect how
GNU CC operates.  They work by specifying directories or prefixes to use
when searching for various kinds of files.

   Note that you can also specify places to search using options such as
`-B', `-I' and `-L' (*note Directory Options::.).  These take
precedence over places specified using environment variables, which in
turn take precedence over those specified by the configuration of GNU
CC.  *Note Driver::.

     If `TMPDIR' is set, it specifies the directory to use for temporary
     files.  GNU CC uses temporary files to hold the output of one
     stage of compilation which is to be used as input to the next
     stage: for example, the output of the preprocessor, which is the
     input to the compiler proper.

     If `GCC_EXEC_PREFIX' is set, it specifies a prefix to use in the
     names of the subprograms executed by the compiler.  No slash is
     added when this prefix is combined with the name of a subprogram,
     but you can specify a prefix that ends with a slash if you wish.

     If GNU CC cannot find the subprogram using the specified prefix, it
     tries looking in the usual places for the subprogram.

     Other prefixes specified with `-B' take precedence over this

     This prefix is also used for finding files such as `crt0.o' that
     are used for linking.

     In addition, the prefix is used in an unusual way in finding the
     directories to search for header files.  For each of the standard
     directories whose name normally begins with
     `/usr/local/lib/gcc-lib' (more precisely, with the value of
     `GCC_INCLUDE_DIR'), GNU CC tries replacing that beginning with the
     specified prefix to produce an alternate directory name.  Thus,
     with `-Bfoo/', GNU CC will search `foo/bar' where it would
     normally search `/usr/local/lib/bar'. These alternate directories
     are searched first; the standard directories come next.

     The value of `COMPILER_PATH' is a colon-separated list of
     directories, much like `PATH'.  GNU CC tries the directories thus
     specified when searching for subprograms, if it can't find the
     subprograms using `GCC_EXEC_PREFIX'.

     The value of `LIBRARY_PATH' is a colon-separated list of
     directories, much like `PATH'.  GNU CC tries the directories thus
     specified when searching for special linker files, if it can't
     find them using `GCC_EXEC_PREFIX'.  Linking using GNU CC also uses
     these directories when searching for ordinary libraries for the
     `-l' option (but directories specified with `-L' come first).

     These environment variables pertain to particular languages.  Each
     variable's value is a colon-separated list of directories, much
     like `PATH'.  When GNU CC searches for header files, it tries the
     directories listed in the variable for the language you are using,
     after the directories specified with `-I' but before the standard
     header file directories.

     If this variable is set, its value specifies how to output
     dependencies for Make based on the header files processed by the
     compiler.  This output looks much like the output from the `-M'
     option (*note Preprocessor Options::.), but it goes to a separate
     file, and is in addition to the usual results of compilation.

     The value of `DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT' can be just a file name, in
     which case the Make rules are written to that file, guessing the
     target name from the source file name.  Or the value can have the
     form `FILE TARGET', in which case the rules are written to file
     FILE using TARGET as the target name.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Running Protoize,  Prev: Environment Variables,  Up: Invoking GCC

Running Protoize

   The program `protoize' is an optional part of GNU C.  You can use it
to add prototypes to a program, thus converting the program to ANSI C
in one respect.  The companion program `unprotoize' does the reverse:
it removes argument types from any prototypes that are found.

   When you run these programs, you must specify a set of source files
as command line arguments.  The conversion programs start out by
compiling these files to see what functions they define.  The
information gathered about a file FOO is saved in a file named `FOO.X'.

   After scanning comes actual conversion.  The specified files are all
eligible to be converted; any files they include (whether sources or
just headers) are eligible as well.

   But not all the eligible files are converted.  By default,
`protoize' and `unprotoize' convert only source and header files in the
current directory.  You can specify additional directories whose files
should be converted with the `-d DIRECTORY' option.  You can also
specify particular files to exclude with the `-x FILE' option.  A file
is converted if it is eligible, its directory name matches one of the
specified directory names, and its name within the directory has not
been excluded.

   Basic conversion with `protoize' consists of rewriting most function
definitions and function declarations to specify the types of the
arguments.  The only ones not rewritten are those for varargs functions.

   `protoize' optionally inserts prototype declarations at the
beginning of the source file, to make them available for any calls that
precede the function's definition.  Or it can insert prototype
declarations with block scope in the blocks where undeclared functions
are called.

   Basic conversion with `unprotoize' consists of rewriting most
function declarations to remove any argument types, and rewriting
function definitions to the old-style pre-ANSI form.

   Both conversion programs print a warning for any function
declaration or definition that they can't convert.  You can suppress
these warnings with `-q'.

   The output from `protoize' or `unprotoize' replaces the original
source file.  The original file is renamed to a name ending with
`.save'.  If the `.save' file already exists, then the source file is
simply discarded.

   `protoize' and `unprotoize' both depend on GNU CC itself to scan the
program and collect information about the functions it uses. So neither
of these programs will work until GNU CC is installed.

   Here is a table of the options you can use with `protoize' and
`unprotoize'.  Each option works with both programs unless otherwise

     Look for the file `SYSCALLS.c.X' in DIRECTORY, instead of the
     usual directory (normally `/usr/local/lib').  This file contains
     prototype information about standard system functions.  This option
     applies only to `protoize'.

     Use  COMPILATION-OPTIONS as the options when running `gcc' to
     produce the `.X' files.  The special option `-aux-info' is always
     passed in addition, to tell `gcc' to write a `.X' file.

     Note that the compilation options must be given as a single
     argument to `protoize' or `unprotoize'.  If you want to specify
     several `gcc' options, you must quote the entire set of
     compilation options to make them a single word in the shell.

     There are certain `gcc' arguments that you cannot use, because they
     would produce the wrong kind of output.  These include `-g', `-O',
     `-c', `-S', and `-o' If you include these in the
     COMPILATION-OPTIONS, they are ignored.

     Rename files to end in `.C' instead of `.c'. This is convenient if
     you are converting a C program to C++. This option applies only to

     Add explicit global declarations.  This means inserting explicit
     declarations at the beginning of each source file for each function
     that is called in the file and was not declared.  These
     declarations precede the first function definition that contains a
     call to an undeclared function.  This option applies only to

     Indent old-style parameter declarations with the string STRING.
     This option applies only to `protoize'.

     `unprotoize' converts prototyped function definitions to old-style
     function definitions, where the arguments are declared between the
     argument list and the initial `{'.  By default, `unprotoize' uses
     five spaces as the indentation.  If you want to indent with just
     one space instead, use `-i " "'.

     Keep the `.X' files.  Normally, they are deleted after conversion
     is finished.

     Add explicit local declarations.  `protoize' with `-l' inserts a
     prototype declaration for each function in each block which calls
     the function without any declaration.  This option applies only to

     Make no real changes.  This mode just prints information about the
     conversions that would have been done without `-n'.

     Make no `.save' files.  The original files are simply deleted. Use
     this option with caution.

     Use the program PROGRAM as the compiler.  Normally, the name `gcc'
     is used.

     Work quietly.  Most warnings are suppressed.

     Print the version number, just like `-v' for `gcc'.

   If you need special compiler options to compile one of your program's
source files, then you should generate that file's `.X' file specially,
by running `gcc' on that source file with the appropriate options and
the option `-aux-info'.  Then run `protoize' on the entire set of
files.  `protoize' will use the existing `.X' file because it is newer
than the source file. For example:

     gcc -Dfoo=bar file1.c -aux-info
     protoize *.c

You need to include the special files along with the rest in the
`protoize' command, even though their `.X' files already exist, because
otherwise they won't get converted.

   *Note Protoize Caveats::, for more information on how to use
`protoize' successfully.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Installation,  Next: Extensions,  Prev: Invoking GCC,  Up: Top

Installing GNU CC

   Here is the procedure for installing GNU CC on a Unix system.

* Menu:

* Other Dir::     Compiling in a separate directory (not where the source is).
* Cross-Compiler::   Building and installing a cross-compiler.
* PA Install::    See below for installation on the HP Precision Architecture.
* Sun Install::   See below for installation on the Sun.
* 3b1 Install::   See below for installation on the 3b1.
* Unos Install::  See below for installation on Unos (from CRDS).
* VMS Install::   See below for installation on VMS.
* WE32K Install:: See below for installation on the 3b* aside from the 3b1.
* MIPS Install::  See below for installation on the MIPS Architecture.

  1. If you have built GNU CC previously in the same directory for a
     different target machine, do `make distclean' to delete all files
     that might be invalid.  One of the files this deletes is
     `Makefile'; if `make distclean' complains that `Makefile' does not
     exist, it probably means that the directory is already suitably

  2. On a System V release 4 system, make sure `/usr/bin' precedes
     `/usr/ucb' in `PATH'.  The `cc' command in `/usr/ucb' uses
     libraries which have bugs.

  3. Specify the host and target machine configurations.  You do this by
     running the file `configure' with appropriate arguments.

     If you are building a compiler to produce code for the machine it
     runs on, specify just one machine type.  Use the `--target'
     option; the host type will default to be the same as the target. 
     (For information on building a cross-compiler, see *Note
     Cross-Compiler::.)  The command looks like this:

          configure --target=sparc-sun-sunos4.1

     A configuration name may be canonical or it may be more or less

     A canonical configuration name has three parts, separated by
     dashes. It looks like this: `CPU-COMPANY-SYSTEM'. (The three parts
     may themselves contain dashes; `configure' can figure out which
     dashes serve which purpose.)  For example, `m68k-sun-sunos4.1'
     specifies a Sun 3.

     You can also replace parts of the configuration by nicknames or
     aliases. For example, `sun3' stands for `m68k-sun', so
     `sun3-sunos4.1' is another way to specify a Sun 3.  You can also
     use simply `sun3-sunos', since the version of SunOS is assumed by
     default to be version 4.  `sun3-bsd' also works, since `configure'
     knows that the only BSD variant on a Sun 3 is SunOS.

     You can specify a version number after any of the system types,
     and some of the CPU types.  In most cases, the version is
     irrelevant, and will be ignored.  So you might as well specify the
     version if you know it.

     Here are the possible CPU types:

          a29k, alpha, arm, cN, elxsi, hppa1.0, hppa1.1, i386, i860,
          i960, m68000, m68k, m88k, mips, ns32k, pyramid, romp, rs6000,
          sparc, vax, we32k.

     Here are the recognized company names.  As you can see, customary
     abbreviations are used rather than the longer official names.

          alliant, altos, apollo, att, cbm, convergent, convex, crds,
          dec, dg, encore, harris, hp, ibm, mips, motorola, ncr, next,
          ns, omron, sequent, sgi, sony, sun, tti, unicom.

     The company name is meaningful only to disambiguate when the rest
     of the information supplied is insufficient.  You can omit it,
     writing just `CPU-SYSTEM', if it is not needed.  For example,
     `vax-ultrix4.2' is equivalent to `vax-dec-ultrix4.2'.

     Here is a list of system types:

          aix, aos, bsd, ctix, dgux, dynix, genix, hpux, isc, linux,
          luna, mach, minix, newsos, osf, osfrose, riscos, sco, sunos,
          sysv, ultrix, unos, vms.

     You can omit the system type; then `configure' guesses the
     operating system from the CPU and company.

     You can add a version number to the system type; this may or may
     not make a difference.  For example, you can write `bsd4.3' or
     `bsd4.4' to distinguish versions of BSD.  In practice, the version
     number is most needed for `sysv3' and `sysv4', which are often
     treated differently.

     If you specify an impossible combination such as `i860-dg-vms',
     then you may get an error message from `configure', or it may
     ignore part of the information and do the best it can with the
     rest. `configure' always prints the canonical name for the
     alternative that it used.

     Often a particular model of machine has a name.  Many machine
     names are recognized as aliases for CPU/company combinations. 
     Thus, the machine name `sun3', mentioned above, is an alias for
     `m68k-sun'. Sometimes we accept a company name as a machine name,
     when the name is popularly used for a particular machine.  Here is
     a table of the known machine names:

          3300, 3b1, 3bN, 7300, altos3068, altos, apollo68, att-7300,
          balance, convex-cN, crds, decstation-3100, decstation, delta,
          encore, fx2800, gmicro, hp7NN, hp8NN, hp9k2NN, hp9k3NN,
          hp9k7NN, hp9k8NN, iris4d, iris, isi68, m3230, magnum, merlin,
          miniframe, mmax, news-3600, news800, news, next, pbd, pc532,
          pmax, ps2, risc-news, rtpc, sun2, sun386i, sun386, sun3,
          sun4, symmetry, tower-32, tower.

     Remember that a machine name specifies both the cpu type and the
     company name.

     There are four additional options you can specify independently to
     describe variant hardware and software configurations.  These are
     `--with-gnu-as', `--with-gnu-ld', `--with-stabs' and `--nfp'.

          On certain systems, you must specify whether you want GNU CC
          to work with the usual compilation tools or with the GNU
          compilation tools (including GAS).  Use the `--with-gnu-as'
          argument when you run `configure', if you want to use the GNU
          tools.  (Specify `--with-gnu-ld' as well, since on these
          systems GAS works only with the GNU linker.)  The systems
          where this makes a difference are `i386-ANYTHING-sysv',
          `i860-ANYTHING-bsd', `m68k-hp-hpux', `m68k-sony-bsd',
          `m68k-altos-sysv', `m68000-hp-hpux', and `m68000-att-sysv'. 
          On any other system, `--with-gnu-as' has no effect.

          Specify the option `--with-gnu-ld' if you plan to use the GNU
          linker.  This inhibits the installation of `collect2', a
          program which otherwise serves as a front-end for the
          system's linker on most configurations.

          On MIPS based systems, you must specify whether you want GNU
          CC to create the normal ECOFF debugging format, or to use
          BSD-style stabs passed through the ECOFF symbol table.  The
          normal ECOFF debug format cannot fully handle languages other
          than C.  BSD stabs format can handle other languages, but it
          only works with the GNU debugger GDB.

          Normally, GNU CC uses the ECOFF debugging format by default;
          if you prefer BSD stabs, specify `--with-stabs' when you
          configure GNU CC.

          No matter which default you choose when you configure GNU CC,
          the user can use the `-gcoff' and `-gstabs+' options to
          specify explicitly the debug format for a particular

          On certain systems, you must specify whether the machine has
          a floating point unit.  These systems are `m68k-sun-sunosN'
          and `m68k-isi-bsd'.  On any other system, `--nfp' currently
          has no effect, though perhaps there are other systems where
          it could usefully make a difference.

     If you want to install your own homemade configuration files, you
     can use `local' as the company name to access them.  If you use
     configuration `CPU-local', the entire configuration name is used
     to form the configuration file names.

     Thus, if you specify `m68k-local', then the files used are
     `m68k-local.md', `m68k-local.h', `m68k-local.c',
     `xm-m68k-local.h', `t-m68k-local', and `x-m68k-local'.

     Here is a list of configurations that have special treatment or
     special things you must know:

          Systems using processors that implement the DEC Alpha
          architecture and are running the OSF/1 operating system. (VMS
          on the Alpha is not currently supported by GNU CC.)  As of
          this writing, the only Alpha-based product currently
          available from DEC is the 21064 (EV4) processor chip; no
          system-level products can be ordered.  This port is provided
          for those developers who might have early Alpha hardware from
          DEC or other vendors and run the OSF/1 operating system.  It
          has not been extensively tested and both the C++ and
          Objective-C languages may not work, except in a
          cross-compilation environment.

          The `ASSEMBLE_FILE_START' macro writes a `.verstamp' directive
          containing the version of the calling sequence.  Currently,
          we use `9 0', which we believe will work until the official
          release by DEC of their system, at which point `3 11' is the
          correct value.  If you get a mismatch error from the
          assembler on a `.verstamp' line, consult the file
          `/usr/include/stamp.h' for the present value.  GNU C on the
          Alpha does not support versions of DEC's OSF/1 earlier than
          BL9; if you are running an older version, we suggest you ask
          your DEC contact for an update.

          Note that since the Alpha is a 64-bit architecture,
          cross-compilers from 32-bit machines will not generate as
          efficient code as that generated when the compiler is running
          on a 64-bit machine because many optimizations that depend on
          being able to represent a word on the target in an integral
          value on the host cannot be performed.

          AMD Am29K-family processors.  These are normally used in
          embedded applications.  There are no standard Unix
          configurations. This configuration corresponds to AMD's
          standard calling sequence and binary interface and is
          compatible with other 29K tools.

          You may need to make a variant of the file `a29k.h' for your
          particular configuration.

          AMD Am29050 used in a system running a variant of BSD Unix.

          The Elxsi's C compiler has known limitations that prevent it
          from compiling GNU C.  Please contact `mrs@cygnus.com' for
          more details.

          Compilation with RCC is recommended.

          You need a version of GAS that you can get from

          Go to the Berkeley universe before compiling.  In addition,
          you probably need to create a file named `string.h'
          containing just one line: `#include <strings.h>'.

          You may find that you need another version of GNU CC to begin
          bootstrapping with, since the current version when built with
          the system's own compiler seems to get an infinite loop
          compiling part of `libgcc2.c'.  GNU CC version 2 compiled
          with GNU CC (any version) seems not to have this problem.

          AT&T 3b1, a.k.a. 7300 PC.  Special procedures are needed to
          compile GNU CC with this machine's standard C compiler, due
          to bugs in that compiler.  *Note 3b1 Install::.  You can
          bootstrap it more easily with previous versions of GNU CC if
          you have them.

          HP 9000 series 200 running BSD.  Note that the C compiler
          that comes with this system cannot compile GNU CC; contact
          `law@cs.utah.edu' to get binaries of GNU CC for bootstrapping.

          Altos 3068.  You must use the GNU assembler, linker and
          debugger, with COFF-encapsulation.  Also, you must fix a
          kernel bug.  Details in the file `README.ALTOS'.

          HP 9000 series 300 or 400 running HP-UX.  HP-UX version 8.0
          has a bug in the assembler that prevents compilation of GNU
          CC.  To fix it, get patch PHCO_0800 from HP.

          In addition, `--gas' does not currently work with this
          configuration.  Changes in HP-UX have broken the library
          conversion tool and the linker.

          Sun 3.  We do not provide a configuration file to use the Sun
          FPA by default, because programs that establish signal
          handlers for floating point traps inherently cannot work with
          the FPA.

          Motorola m88k running the AT&T/Unisoft/Motorola V.3 reference
          port. These systems tend to use the Green Hills C, revision
          1.8.5, as the standard C compiler.  There are apparently bugs
          in this compiler that result in object files differences
          between stage 2 and stage 3.  If this happens, make the stage
          4 compiler and compare it to the stage 3 compiler.  If the
          stage 3 and stage 4 object files are identical, this suggests
          a problem with the standard C compiler.  It is best, however,
          to use an older version of GNU CC for bootstrapping.

          Motorola m88k running DG/UX.  To build native or cross
          compilers on DG/UX, you must first change to the 88open BCS
          software development environment.  This is done by issuing
          this command:

               eval `sde-target m88kbcs`

          MIPS machines running the MIPS operating system in BSD mode. 
          It's possible that some old versions of the system lack the
          functions `memcpy', `memcmp', and `memset'.  If your system
          lacks these, you must remove or undo the definition of
          `TARGET_MEM_FUNCTIONS' in `mips-bsd.h'.

          Sony MIPS NEWS.  This works in NEWSOS 5.0.1, but not in 5.0.2
          (which uses ELF instead of COFF).  Support for 5.0.2 will
          probably be provided soon by volunteers.

          Encore ns32000 system.  Encore systems are supported only
          under BSD.

          National Semiconductor ns32000 system.  Genix has bugs in
          `alloca' and `malloc'; you must get the compiled versions of
          these from GNU Emacs.

          Go to the Berkeley universe before compiling.  In addition,
          you probably need to create a file named `string.h'
          containing just one line: `#include <strings.h>'.

          UTEK ns32000 system ("merlin").  The C compiler that comes
          with this system cannot compile GNU CC; contact
          `tektronix!reed!mason' to get binaries of GNU CC for

          The only operating systems supported for the IBM RT PC are
          AOS and MACH.  GNU CC does not support AIX running on the RT.
           We recommend you compile GNU CC with an earlier version of
          itself; if you compile GNU CC with `hc', the Metaware
          compiler, it will work, but you will get mismatches between
          the stage 2 and stage 3 compilers in various files. These
          errors are minor differences in some floating-point constants
          and can be safely ignored; the stage 3 compiler is correct.

          *Read the file `README.RS6000' for information on how to get
          a fix for a problem in the IBM assembler that prevents use of
          GNU CC.* You must either obtain the new assembler or avoid
          using the `-g' switch.  Note that `Makefile.in' uses `-g' by
          default when compiling `libgcc2.c'.

          Don't try compiling with Vax C (`vcc').  It produces
          incorrect code in some cases (for example, when `alloca' is

          Meanwhile, compiling `cp-parse.c' with pcc does not work
          because of an internal table size limitation in that
          compiler.  To avoid this problem, compile just the GNU C
          compiler first, and use it to recompile building all the
          languages that you want to run.

     Here we spell out what files will be set up by `configure'. 
     Normally you need not be concerned with these files.

        * A symbolic link named `config.h' is made to the top-level
          config file for the machine you will run the compiler on
          (*note Config::.). This file is responsible for defining
          information about the host machine.  It includes `tm.h'.

          The top-level config file is located in the subdirectory
          `config'. Its name is always `xm-SOMETHING.h'; usually
          `xm-MACHINE.h', but there are some exceptions.

          If your system does not support symbolic links, you might
          want to set up `config.h' to contain a `#include' command
          which refers to the appropriate file.

        * A symbolic link named `tconfig.h' is made to the top-level
          config file for your target machine.  This is used for
          compiling certain programs to run on that machine.

        * A symbolic link named `tm.h' is made to the
          machine-description macro file for your target machine.  It
          should be in the subdirectory `config' and its name is often

        * A symbolic link named `md' will be made to the machine
          description pattern file.  It should be in the `config'
          subdirectory and its name should be `MACHINE.md'; but MACHINE
          is often not the same as the name used in the `tm.h' file
          because the `md' files are more general.

        * A symbolic link named `aux-output.c' will be made to the
          output subroutine file for your machine.  It should be in the
          `config' subdirectory and its name should be `MACHINE.c'.

        * The command file `configure' also constructs `Makefile' by
          adding some text to the template file `Makefile.in'.  The
          additional text comes from files in the `config' directory,
          named `t-TARGET' and `h-HOST'.  If these files do not exist,
          it means nothing needs to be added for a given target or host.

  4. Make sure the Bison parser generator is installed.  (This is
     unnecessary if the Bison output files `c-parse.c' and `cexp.c' are
     more recent than `c-parse.y' and `cexp.y' and you do not plan to
     change the `.y' files.)

     Bison versions older than Sept 8, 1988 will produce incorrect
     output for `c-parse.c'.

  5. Build the compiler.  Just type `make LANGUAGES=c' in the compiler

     `LANGUAGES=c' specifies that only the C compiler should be
     compiled.  The makefile normally builds compilers for all the
     supported languages; currently, C, C++ and Objective C.  However,
     C is the only language that is sure to work when you build with
     other non-GNU C compilers.  In addition, building anything but C
     at this stage is a waste of time.

     In general, you can specify the languages to build by typing the
     argument `LANGUAGES="LIST"', where LIST is one or more words from
     the list `c', `c++', and `objective-c'.

     Ignore any warnings you may see about "statement not reached" in
     `insn-emit.c'; they are normal.  Any other compilation errors may
     represent bugs in the port to your machine or operating system, and
     should be investigated and reported (*note Bugs::.).

     Some commercial compilers fail to compile GNU CC because they have
     bugs or limitations.  For example, the Microsoft compiler is said
     to run out of macro space.  Some Ultrix compilers run out of
     expression space; then you need to break up the statement where
     the problem happens.

     If you are building with a previous GNU C compiler, do not use
     `CC=gcc' on the make command or by editing the Makefile. Instead,
     use a full pathname to specify the compiler, such as
     `CC=/usr/local/bin/gcc'.  This is because make might execute the
     `gcc' in the current directory before all of the compiler
     components have been built.

  6. If you are using COFF-encapsulation, you must convert `libgcc.a' to
     a GNU-format library at this point.  See the file `README.ENCAP'
     in the directory containing the GNU binary file utilities, for

  7. If you are building a cross-compiler, stop here.  *Note

  8. Move the first-stage object files and executables into a
     subdirectory with this command:

          make stage1

     The files are moved into a subdirectory named `stage1'. Once
     installation is complete, you may wish to delete these files with
     `rm -r stage1'.

  9. Recompile the compiler with itself, with this command:

          make CC="stage1/xgcc -Bstage1/" CFLAGS="-g -O"

     This is called making the stage 2 compiler.

     The command shown above builds compilers for all the supported
     languages.  If you don't want them all, you can specify the
     languages to build by typing the argument `LANGUAGES="LIST"'.  LIST
     should contain one or more words from the list `c', `c++',
     `objective-c', and `proto'.  Separate the words with spaces.
     `proto' stands for the programs `protoize' and `unprotoize'; they
     are not a separate language, but you use `LANGUAGES' to enable or
     disable their installation.

     If you are going to build the stage 3 compiler, then you might
     want to build only the C language in stage 2.

     Once you have built the stage 2 compiler, if you are short of disk
     space, you can delete the subdirectory `stage1'.

     On a 68000 or 68020 system lacking floating point hardware, unless
     you have selected a `tm.h' file that expects by default that there
     is no such hardware, do this instead:

          make CC="stage1/xgcc -Bstage1/" CFLAGS="-g -O -msoft-float"

 10. If you wish to test the compiler by compiling it with itself one
     more time, do this:

          make stage2
          make CC="stage2/xgcc -Bstage2/" CFLAGS="-g -O"

     This is called making the stage 3 compiler.  Aside from the `-B'
     option, the compiler options should be the same as when you made
     the stage 2 compiler.  But the `LANGUAGES' option need not be the
     same.  The command shown above builds compilers for all the
     supported languages; if you don't want them all, you can specify
     the languages to build by typing the argument `LANGUAGES="LIST"',
     as described above.

     Then compare the latest object files with the stage 2 object
     files--they ought to be identical, unless they contain time stamps.
     You can compare the files, disregarding the time stamps if any,
     like this:

          make compare

     This will mention any object files that differ between stage 2 and
     stage 3.  Any difference, no matter how innocuous, indicates that
     the stage 2 compiler has compiled GNU CC incorrectly, and is
     therefore a potentially serious bug which you should investigate
     and report (*note Bugs::.).

     If your system does not put time stamps in the object files, then
     this is a faster way to compare them (using the Bourne shell):

          for file in *.o; do
          cmp $file stage2/$file

     If you have built the compiler with the `-mno-mips-tfile' option on
     MIPS machines, you will not be able to compare the files.

 11. Install the compiler driver, the compiler's passes and run-time
     support. You can use the following command:

          make install CC="stage2/xgcc -Bstage2/" CFLAGS="-g -O" LANGUAGES="LIST"

     (Use the same value for `CC', `CFLAGS' and `LANGUAGES' that you
     used when compiling the files that are being installed.  One
     reason this is necessary is that some versions of Make have bugs
     and recompile files gratuitously when you do this step.  If you
     use the same variable values, those files will be recompiled

     This copies the files `cc1', `cpp' and `libgcc.a' to files `cc1',
     `cpp' and `libgcc.a' in directory
     `/usr/local/lib/gcc-lib/TARGET/VERSION', which is where the
     compiler driver program looks for them.  Here TARGET is the target
     machine type specified when you ran `configure', and VERSION is
     the version number of GNU CC.  This naming scheme permits various
     versions and/or cross-compilers to coexist.

     It also copies the driver program `gcc' into the directory
     `/usr/local/bin', so that it appears in typical execution search

     On some systems, this command will cause recompilation of some
     files. This is usually due to bugs in `make'.  You should either
     ignore this problem, or use GNU Make.

     *Warning: there is a bug in `alloca' in the Sun library.  To avoid
     this bug, be sure to install the executables of GNU CC that were
     compiled by GNU CC.  (That is, the executables from stage 2 or 3,
     not stage 1.)  They use `alloca' as a built-in function and never
     the one in the library.*

     (It is usually better to install GNU CC executables from stage 2
     or 3, since they usually run faster than the ones compiled with
     some other compiler.)

 12. Install the Objective C library (if you have built the Objective C
     compiler).  Here is the command to do this:

          make install-libobjc CC="stage2/xgcc -Bstage2/" CFLAGS="-g -O"

 13. Correct errors in the header files on your machine.

     Various system header files often contain constructs which are
     erroneous, incompatible with ANSI C or otherwise unsuitable, and
     they will not work when you compile programs with GNU CC.

     The most common erroneous construct is found in `ioctl.h', where a
     macro expects argument values to be substituted for argument names
     inside of character constants--something not done in ANSI C.  This
     particular problem can be prevented by using `-traditional'.  Other
     problems are not so easy to work around.

     GNU CC comes with shell scripts to fix known header file problems.
      They install corrected copies of various header files in a
     special directory where only GNU CC will normally look for them. 
     The scripts adapt to various systems by searching all the system
     header files for the problem cases that we know about.

     Use the following command to do this:

          make install-fixincludes

     If you selected a different directory for GNU CC installation when
     you installed it, by specifying the Make variable `prefix' or
     `libdir', specify it the same way in this command.

     Note that some systems are starting to come with ANSI C system
     header files.  On these systems, don't run `install-fixincludes';
     it may not work, and is certainly not necessary.  One exception:
     there are is a special script for System V release 4, which you
     should run.

     It is not the purpose of `install-fixincludes' to add prototypes to
     the system header files.  We support headers with ANSI C
     prototypes in the GNU C Library, and we have no time to support
     adding them to other systems' header files.

 14. If you're going to use C++, it's likely that you need to also
     install the `libg++' distribution.  It should be available from
     the same place where you got the GCC distribution.  Just as GCC
     does not distribute a C runtime library, it also does not include
     a C++ run-time library.  All I/O functionality, special class
     libraries, etc., are available in the `libg++' distribution.

   If you cannot install the compiler's passes and run-time support in
`/usr/local/lib', you can alternatively use the `-B' option to specify
a prefix by which they may be found.  The compiler concatenates the
prefix with the names  `cpp', `cc1' and `libgcc.a'. Thus, you can put
the files in a directory `/usr/foo/gcc' and specify `-B/usr/foo/gcc/'
when you run GNU CC.

   Also, you can specify an alternative default directory for these
files by setting the Make variable `libdir' when you make GNU CC.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Other Dir,  Next: Cross-Compiler,  Up: Installation

Compilation in a Separate Directory

   If you wish to build the object files and executables in a directory
other than the one containing the source files, here is what you must
do differently:

  1. Make sure you have a version of Make that supports the `VPATH'
     feature.  (GNU Make supports it, as do Make versions on most BSD

  2. If you have ever run `configure' in the source directory, you must
     undo the configuration.  Do this by running:

          make distclean

  3. Go to the directory in which you want to build the compiler before
     running `configure':

          mkdir gcc-sun3
          cd gcc-sun3

     On systems that do not support symbolic links, this directory must
     be on the same file system as the source code directory.

  4. Specify where to find `configure' when you run it:

          ../gcc/configure ...

     This also tells `configure' where to find the compiler sources;
     `configure' takes the directory from the file name that was used to
     invoke it.  But if you want to be sure, you can specify the source
     directory with the `--srcdir' option, like this:

          ../gcc/configure --srcdir=../gcc sun3

     The directory you specify with `--srcdir' need not be the same as
     the one that `configure' is found in.

   Now, you can run `make' in that directory.  You need not repeat the
configuration steps shown above, when ordinary source files change.  You
must, however, run `configure' again when the configuration files
change, if your system does not support symbolic links.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Cross-Compiler,  Next: PA Install,  Prev: Other Dir,  Up: Installation

Building and Installing a Cross-Compiler

   GNU CC can function as a cross-compiler for many machines, but not

   * Cross-compilers for the Mips as target do not work because the
     auxiliary programs `mips-tdump.c' and `mips-tfile.c' can't be
     compiled on anything but a Mips.

   * Cross-compilers to or from the Vax probably don't work completely
     because the Vax uses an incompatible floating point format (not
     IEEE format).

   Since GNU CC generates assembler code, you probably need a
cross-assembler that GNU CC can run, in order to produce object files.
If you want to link on other than the target machine, you need a
cross-linker as well.  You also need header files and libraries suitable
for the target machine that you can install on the host machine.

   To build GNU CC as a cross-compiler, you start out by running
`configure'.  You must specify two different configurations, the host
and the target.  Use the `--host=HOST' option for the host and
`--target=TARGET' to specify the target type.  For example, here is how
to configure for a cross-compiler that runs on a hypothetical Intel 386
system and produces code for an HP 68030 system running BSD:

     configure --target=m68k-hp-bsd4.3 --host=i386-bozotheclone-bsd4.3

   Next you should install the cross-assembler and cross-linker (and
`ar' and `ranlib').  Put them in the directory `/usr/local/TARGET/bin'.
 The installation of GNU CC will find them there and copy or link them
to the proper place to find them when you run the cross-compiler later.

   If you want to install any additional libraries to use with the
cross-compiler, put them in the directory `/usr/local/TARGET/lib'; all
files in that subdirectory will be installed in the proper place when
you install the cross-compiler. Likewise, put the header files for the
target machine in `/usr/local/TARGET/include'.

   You must now produce a substitute for `libgcc1.a'.  Normally this
file is compiled with the "native compiler" for the target machine;
compiling it with GNU CC does not work.  But compiling it with the host
machine's compiler also doesn't work--that produces a file that would
run on the host, and you need it to run on the target.

   We can't give you any automatic way to produce this substitute.  For
some targets, the subroutines in `libgcc1.c' are not actually used. You
need not provide the ones that won't be used.  The ones that most
commonly are used are the multiplication, division and remainder
routines--many RISC machines rely on the library for this.  One way to
make them work is to define the appropriate `perform_...' macros for
the subroutines that you need.  If these definitions do not use the C
arithmetic operators that they are meant to implement, you might be
able to compile them with the cross-compiler you are building. To do
this, specify `LIBGCC1=libgcc1.a OLDCC=./xgcc' when building the

   Now you can proceed just as for compiling a single-machine compiler
through the step of building stage 1.  If you have not provided some
sort of `libgcc1.a', then compilation will give up at the point where
it needs that file, printing a suitable error message.  If you do
provide `libgcc1.a', then building the compiler will automatically
compile and link a test program called `cross-test'; if you get errors
in the linking, it means that not all of the necessary routines in
`libgcc1.a' are available.

   When you are using a cross-compiler configuration, building stage 1
does not compile all of GNU CC.  This is because one part of building,
the compilation of `libgcc2.c', requires use of the cross-compiler.

   However, when you type `make install' to install the bulk of the
cross-compiler, that will also compile `libgcc2.c' and install the
resulting `libgcc.a'.

   Do not try to build stage 2 for a cross-compiler.  It doesn't work to
rebuild GNU CC as a cross-compiler using the cross-compiler, because
that would produce a program that runs on the target machine, not on the
host.  For example, if you compile a 386-to-68030 cross-compiler with
itself, the result will not be right either for the 386 (because it was
compiled into 68030 code) or for the 68030 (because it was configured
for a 386 as the host).  If you want to compile GNU CC into 68030 code,
whether you compile it on a 68030 or with a cross-compiler on a 386, you
must specify a 68030 as the host when you configure it.

File: gcc.info,  Node: PA Install,  Next: Sun Install,  Prev: Cross-Compiler,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on the HP Precision Architecture

   There are two variants of this CPU, called 1.0 and 1.1, which have
different machine descriptions.  You must use the right one for your
machine.  All 7NN machines and 8N7 machines use 1.1, while all other
8NN machines use 1.0.

   The easiest way to handle this problem is to use `configure hpNNN'
or `configure hpNNN-hpux', where NNN is the model number of the
machine.  Then `configure' will figure out if the machine is a 1.0 or
1.1.  Use `uname -a' to find out the model number of your machine.

   `-g' does not work on HP-UX, since that system uses a peculiar
debugging format which GNU CC does not know about.  There are
preliminary versions of GAS and GDB for the HP-PA which do work with
GNU CC for debugging.  You can get them by anonymous ftp from
`jaguar.cs.utah.edu' `dist' subdirectory.  You would need to install
GAS in the file


where CONFIGURATION is the configuration name (perhaps `hpNNN-hpux')
and GCCVERSION is the GNU CC version number.  Do this *before* starting
the build process, otherwise you will get errors from the HPUX
assembler while building `libgcc2.a'.  The command

     make install-dir

will create the necessary directory hierarchy so you can install GAS
before building GCC.

   If you obtained GAS before October 6, 1992 it is highly recommended
you get a new one to avoid several bugs which have been discovered

   To enable debugging, configure GNU CC with the `--gas' option before

File: gcc.info,  Node: Sun Install,  Next: 3b1 Install,  Prev: PA Install,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on the Sun

   Make sure the environment variable `FLOAT_OPTION' is not set when
you compile `libgcc.a'.  If this option were set to `f68881' when
`libgcc.a' is compiled, the resulting code would demand to be linked
with a special startup file and would not link properly without special

   There is a bug in `alloca' in certain versions of the Sun library.
To avoid this bug, install the binaries of GNU CC that were compiled by
GNU CC.  They use `alloca' as a built-in function and never the one in
the library.

   Some versions of the Sun compiler crash when compiling GNU CC.  The
problem is a segmentation fault in cpp.  This problem seems to be due to
the bulk of data in the environment variables.  You may be able to avoid
it by using the following command to compile GNU CC with Sun CC:


File: gcc.info,  Node: 3b1 Install,  Next: Unos Install,  Prev: Sun Install,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on the 3b1

   Installing GNU CC on the 3b1 is difficult if you do not already have
GNU CC running, due to bugs in the installed C compiler.  However, the
following procedure might work.  We are unable to test it.

  1. Comment out the `#include "config.h"' line on line 37 of `cccp.c'
     and do `make cpp'.  This makes a preliminary version of GNU cpp.

  2. Save the old `/lib/cpp' and copy the preliminary GNU cpp to that
     file name.

  3. Undo your change in `cccp.c', or reinstall the original version,
     and do `make cpp' again.

  4. Copy this final version of GNU cpp into `/lib/cpp'.

  5. Replace every occurrence of `obstack_free' in the file `tree.c'
     with `_obstack_free'.

  6. Run `make' to get the first-stage GNU CC.

  7. Reinstall the original version of `/lib/cpp'.

  8. Now you can compile GNU CC with itself and install it in the normal