This is Info file gcc.info, produced by Makeinfo-1.49 from the input
file gcc.texi.

   This file documents the use and the internals of the GNU compiler.

   Copyright (C) 1988, 1989, 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
that the sections entitled "GNU General Public License" and "Protect
Your Freedom--Fight `Look And Feel'" are included exactly as in the
original, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is
distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that the sections entitled "GNU General Public
License" and "Protect Your Freedom--Fight `Look And Feel'", and this
permission notice, may be included in translations approved by the Free
Software Foundation instead of in the original English.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Unos Install,  Next: VMS Install,  Prev: 3b1 Install,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on Unos

   Use `configure unos' for building on Unos.

   The Unos assembler is named `casm' instead of `as'.  For some
strange reason linking `/bin/as' to `/bin/casm' changes the behavior,
and does not work.  So, when installing GNU CC, you should install the
following script as `as' in the subdirectory where the passes of GCC
are installed:

     casm $*

   The default Unos library is named `libunos.a' instead of `libc.a'. 
To allow GNU CC to function, either change all references to `-lc' in
`gcc.c' to `-lunos' or link `/lib/libc.a' to `/lib/libunos.a'.

   When compiling GNU CC with the standard compiler, to overcome bugs in
the support of `alloca', do not use `-O' when making stage 2. Then use
the stage 2 compiler with `-O' to make the stage 3 compiler.  This
compiler will have the same characteristics as the usual stage 2
compiler on other systems.  Use it to make a stage 4 compiler and
compare that with stage 3 to verify proper compilation.

   (Perhaps simply defining `ALLOCA' in `x-crds' as described in the
comments there will make the above paragraph superfluous.  Please
inform us of whether this works.)

   Unos uses memory segmentation instead of demand paging, so you will
need a lot of memory.  5 Mb is barely enough if no other tasks are
running. If linking `cc1' fails, try putting the object files into a
library and linking from that library.

File: gcc.info,  Node: VMS Install,  Next: WE32K Install,  Prev: Unos Install,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on VMS

   The VMS version of GNU CC is distributed in a backup saveset
containing both source code and precompiled binaries.

   To install the `gcc' command so you can use the compiler easily, in
the same manner as you use the VMS C compiler, you must install the VMS
CLD file for GNU CC as follows:

  1. Define the VMS logical names `GNU_CC' and `GNU_CC_INCLUDE' to
     point to the directories where the GNU CC executables
     (`gcc-cpp.exe', `gcc-cc1.exe', etc.) and the C include files are
     kept respectively.  This should be done with the commands:

          $ assign /system /translation=concealed -
            disk:[gcc.] gnu_cc
          $ assign /system /translation=concealed -
            disk:[gcc.include.] gnu_cc_include

     with the appropriate disk and directory names.  These commands can
     be placed in your system startup file so they will be executed
     whenever the machine is rebooted.  You may, if you choose, do this
     via the `GCC_INSTALL.COM' script in the `[GCC]' directory.

  2. Install the `GCC' command with the command line:

          $ set command /table=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables -
            /output=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables gnu_cc:[000000]gcc
          $ install replace sys$common:[syslib]dcltables

  3. To install the help file, do the following:

          $ library/help sys$library:helplib.hlb gcc.hlp

     Now you can invoke the compiler with a command like `gcc /verbose
     file.c', which is equivalent to the command `gcc -v -c file.c' in

   If you wish to use GNU C++ you must first install GNU CC, and then
perform the following steps:

  1. Define the VMS logical name `GNU_GXX_INCLUDE' to point to the
     directory where the preprocessor will search for the C++ header
     files. This can be done with the command:

          $ assign /system /translation=concealed -
            disk:[gcc.gxx_include.] gnu_gxx_include

     with the appropriate disk and directory name.  If you are going to
     be using libg++, this is where the libg++ install procedure will
     install the libg++ header files.

  2. Obtain the file `gcc-cc1plus.exe', and place this in the same
     directory that `gcc-cc1.exe' is kept.

     The GNU C++ compiler can be invoked with a command like `gcc /plus
     /verbose file.cc', which is equivalent to the command `g++ -v -c
     file.cc' in Unix.

   We try to put corresponding binaries and sources on the VMS
distribution tape.  But sometimes the binaries will be from an older
version than the sources, because we don't always have time to update
them.  (Use the `/version' option to determine the version number of
the binaries and compare it with the source file `version.c' to tell
whether this is so.)  In this case, you should use the binaries you get
to recompile the sources.  If you must recompile, here is how:

  1. Execute the command procedure `vmsconfig.com' to copy files
     `vax-vms.h', `xm-vax-vms.h', `vax.c' and `vax.md' to `tm.h',
     `config.h', `aux-output.c', and `md.' respectively, and to create
     files `tconfig.h' and `hconfig.h'.  This procedure also creates
     several linker option files used by `make-cc1.com' and a data file
     used by `make-l2.com'.

          $ @vmsconfig.com

  2. Setup the logical names and command tables as defined above.  In
     addition, define the VMS logical name `GNU_BISON' to point at the
     to the directories where the Bison executable is kept.  This
     should be done with the command:

          $ assign /system /translation=concealed -
            disk:[bison.] gnu_bison

     You may, if you choose, use the `INSTALL_BISON.COM' script in the
     `[BISON]' directory.

  3. Install the `BISON' command with the command line:

          $ set command /table=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables -
            /output=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables -
          $ install replace sys$common:[syslib]dcltables

  4. Type `@make-gcc' to recompile everything (alternatively, you may
     submit the file `make-gcc.com' to a batch queue).  If you wish to
     build the GNU C++ compiler as well as the GNU CC compiler, you must
     first edit `make-gcc.com' and follow the instructions that appear
     in the comments.

  5. In order to use GCC, you need a library of functions which GCC
     compiled code will call to perform certain tasks, and these
     functions are defined in the file `libgcc2.c'.  To compile this
     you should use the command procedure `make-l2.com', which will
     generate the library `libgcc2.olb'. `libgcc2.olb' should be built
     using the compiler built from the same distribution that
     `libgcc2.c' came from, and `make-gcc.com' will automatically do
     all of this for you.

     To install the library, use the following commands:

          $ library gnu_cc:[000000]gcclib/delete=(new,eprintf)
          $ library libgcc2/extract=*/output=libgcc2.obj
          $ library gnu_cc:[000000]gcclib libgcc2.obj

     The first command simply removes old modules that will be replaced
     with modules from libgcc2.  If the VMS librarian complains about
     those modules not being present, simply ignore the message and
     continue on with the next command.

     Whenever you update the compiler on your system, you should also
     update the library with the above procedure.

  6. You may wish to build GCC in such a way that no files are written
     to the directory where the source files reside.  An example would
     be the when the source files are on a read-only disk.  In these
     cases, execute the following DCL commands (substituting your
     actual path names):

          $ assign dua0:[gcc.build_dir.]/translation=concealed, -
                   dua1:[gcc.source_dir.]/translation=concealed  gcc_build
          $ set default gcc_build:[000000]

     where `dua1:[gcc.source_dir]' contains the source code, and
     `dua0:[gcc.build_dir]' is meant to contain all of the generated
     object files and executables.  Once you have done this, you can
     proceed building GCC as described above.  (Keep in mind that
     `gcc_build' is a rooted logical name, and thus the device names in
     each element of the search list must be an actual physical device
     name rather than another rooted logical name).

  7. *If you are building GNU CC with a previous version of GNU CC, you
     also should check to see that you have the newest version of the
     assembler*.  In particular, GNU CC version 2 treats global constant
     variables slightly differently from GNU CC version 1, and GAS
     version 1.38.1 does not have the patches required to work with GCC
     version 2. If you use GAS 1.38.1, then `extern const' variables
     will not have the read-only bit set, and the linker will generate
     warning messages about mismatched psect attributes for these
     variables.  These warning messages are merely a nuisance, and can
     safely be ignored.

     If you are compiling with a version of GNU CC older than 1.33,
     specify `/DEFINE=("inline=")' as an option in all the
     compilations.  This requires editing all the `gcc' commands in
     `make-cc1.com'. (The older versions had problems supporting
     `inline'.)  Once you have a working 1.33 or newer GNU CC, you can
     change this file back.

  8. If you want to build GNU CC with the VAX C compiler, you will need
     to make minor changes in `make-cccp.com' and `make-cc1.com' to
     choose alternate definitions of `CC', `CFLAGS', and `LIBS'.  See
     comments in those files.  However, you must also have a working
     version of the GNU assembler (GNU as, aka GAS) as it is used as
     the back-end for GNU CC to produce binary object modules and is
     not included in the GNU CC sources.  GAS is also needed to compile
     `libgcc2' in order to build `gcclib' (see above); `make-l2.com'
     expects to be able to find it operational in

     To use GNU CC on VMS, you need the VMS driver programs `gcc.exe',
     `gcc.com', and `gcc.cld'.  They are distributed with the VMS
     binaries (`gcc-vms') rather than the GNU CC sources.  GAS is also
     included in `gcc-vms', as is Bison.

     Once you have successfully built GNU CC with VAX C, you should use
     the resulting compiler to rebuild itself.  Before doing this, be
     sure to restore the `CC', `CFLAGS', and `LIBS' definitions in
     `make-cccp.com' and `make-cc1.com'.  The second generation
     compiler will be able to take advantage of many optimizations that
     must be suppressed when building with other compilers.

   Under previous versions of GNU CC, the generated code would
occasionally give strange results when linked with the sharable
`VAXCRTL' library. Now this should work.

   Even with this version, however, GNU CC itself should not be linked
with the sharable `VAXCRTL'.  The version of `qsort' in `VAXCRTL' has a
bug (known to be present in VMS versions V4.6 through V5.5) which
causes the compiler to fail.

   The executables that are generated by `make-cc1.com' and
`make-cccp.com' use the object library version of `VAXCRTL' in order to
make use of the `qsort' routine in `gcclib.olb'.  If you wish to link
the compiler executables with the shareable image version of `VAXCRTL',
you should edit the file `tm.h' (created by `vmsconfig.com') to define

   `QSORT_WORKAROUND' is always defined when GNU CC is compiled with
VAX C, to avoid a problem in case `gcclib.olb' is not yet available.

File: gcc.info,  Node: WE32K Install,  Next: MIPS Install,  Prev: VMS Install,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on the WE32K

   These computers are also known as the 3b2, 3b5, 3b20 and other
similar names.  (However, the 3b1 is actually a 68000; see *Note 3b1

   Don't use `-g' when compiling with the system's compiler.  The
system's linker seems to be unable to handle such a large program with
debugging information.

   The system's compiler runs out of capacity when compiling `stmt.c'
in GNU CC.  You can work around this by building `cpp' in GNU CC first,
then use that instead of the system's preprocessor with the system's C
compiler to compile `stmt.c'.  Here is how:

     mv /lib/cpp /lib/cpp.att
     cp cpp /lib/cpp.gnu
     echo "/lib/cpp.gnu -traditional $*" > /lib/cpp
     chmod +x /lib/cpp

   The system's compiler produces bad code for some of the GNU CC
optimization files.  So you must build the stage 2 compiler without
optimization.  Then build a stage 3 compiler with optimization. That
executable should work.  Here are the necessary commands:

     make LANGUAGES=c CC=stage1/xgcc CFLAGS="-Bstage1/ -g"
     make stage2
     make CC=stage2/xgcc CFLAGS="-Bstage2/ -g -O"

   You may need to raise the ULIMIT setting to build a C++ compiler, as
the file `cc1plus' is larger than one megabyte.

File: gcc.info,  Node: MIPS Install,  Prev: WE32K Install,  Up: Installation

Installing GNU CC on the MIPS

   See *Note Installation:: about whether to use `--with-stabs' or not.

   The MIPS C compiler needs to be told to increase its table size for
switch statements with the `-Wf,-XNg1500' option in order to compile
`cp-parse.c'.  If you use the `-O2' optimization option, you also need
to use `-Olimit 3000'. Both of these options are automatically
generated in the `Makefile' that the shell script `configure' builds.
If you override the `CC' make variable and use the MIPS compilers, you
may need to add `-Wf,-XNg1500 -Olimit 3000'.

   MIPS computers running RISC-OS can support four different
personalities: default, BSD 4.3, System V.3, and System V.4 (older
versions of RISC-OS don't support V.4).  To configure GCC for these
platforms use the following configurations:

     Default configuration for RISC-OS, revision `rev'.

     BSD 4.3 configuration for RISC-OS, revision `rev'.

     System V.4 configuration for RISC-OS, revision `rev'.

     System V.3 configuration for RISC-OS, revision `rev'.

   The revision `rev' mentioned above is the revision of RISC-OS to
use.  You must reconfigure GCC when going from a RISC-OS revision 4 to
RISC-OS revision 5.  This has the effect of avoiding a linker bug (see
*Note Installation Problems:: for more details).

   DECstations can support three different personalities: Ultrix, DEC
OSF/1, and OSF/rose.  To configure GCC for these platforms use the
following configurations:

     Ultrix configuration.

     Dec's version of OSF/1.

     Open Software Foundation reference port of OSF/1 which uses the
     OSF/rose object file format instead of ECOFF.  Normally, you would
     not select this configuration.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Extensions,  Next: Trouble,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

GNU Extensions to the C Language

   GNU C provides several language features not found in ANSI standard
C. (The `-pedantic' option directs GNU CC to print a warning message if
any of these features is used.)  To test for the availability of these
features in conditional compilation, check for a predefined macro
`__GNUC__', which is always defined under GNU CC.

* Menu:

* Statement Exprs::     Putting statements and declarations inside expressions.
* Local Labels::        Labels local to a statement-expression.
* Labels as Values::    Getting pointers to labels, and computed gotos.
* Nested Functions::    As in Algol and Pascal, lexical scoping of functions.
* Naming Types::        Giving a name to the type of some expression.
* Typeof::              `typeof': referring to the type of an expression.
* Lvalues::             Using `?:', `,' and casts in lvalues.
* Conditionals::        Omitting the middle operand of a `?:' expression.
* Long Long::		Double-word integers--`long long int'.
* Zero Length::         Zero-length arrays.
* Variable Length::     Arrays whose length is computed at run time.
* Macro Varargs::	Macros with variable number of arguments.
* Subscripting::        Any array can be subscripted, even if not an lvalue.
* Pointer Arith::       Arithmetic on `void'-pointers and function pointers.
* Initializers::        Non-constant initializers.
* Constructors::        Constructor expressions give structures, unions
                         or arrays as values.
* Labeled Elements::	Labeling elements of initializers.
* Cast to Union::       Casting to union type from any member of the union.
* Case Ranges::		`case 1 ... 9' and such.
* Function Attributes:: Declaring that functions have no side effects,
                         or that they can never return.
* Function Prototypes:: Prototype declarations and old-style definitions.
* Dollar Signs::        Dollar sign is allowed in identifiers.
* Character Escapes::   `\e' stands for the character ESC.
* Variable Attributes::	Specifying attributes of variables.
* Alignment::           Inquiring about the alignment of a type or variable.
* Inline::              Defining inline functions (as fast as macros).
* Extended Asm::        Assembler instructions with C expressions as operands.
                         (With them you can define "built-in" functions.)
* Asm Labels::          Specifying the assembler name to use for a C symbol.
* Explicit Reg Vars::   Defining variables residing in specified registers.
* Alternate Keywords::  `__const__', `__asm__', etc., for header files.
* Incomplete Enums::    `enum foo;', with details to follow.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Statement Exprs,  Next: Local Labels,  Up: Extensions

Statements and Declarations within Expressions

   A compound statement enclosed in parentheses may appear as an
expression in GNU C.  This allows you to use loops, switches, and local
variables within an expression.

   Recall that a compound statement is a sequence of statements
surrounded by braces; in this construct, parentheses go around the
braces.  For example:

     ({ int y = foo (); int z;
        if (y > 0) z = y;
        else z = - y;
        z; })

is a valid (though slightly more complex than necessary) expression for
the absolute value of `foo ()'.

   The last thing in the compound statement should be an expression
followed by a semicolon; the value of this subexpression serves as the
value of the entire construct.  (If you use some other kind of statement
last within the braces, the construct has type `void', and thus
effectively no value.)

   This feature is especially useful in making macro definitions "safe"
(so that they evaluate each operand exactly once).  For example, the
"maximum" function is commonly defined as a macro in standard C as

     #define max(a,b) ((a) > (b) ? (a) : (b))

But this definition computes either A or B twice, with bad results if
the operand has side effects.  In GNU C, if you know the type of the
operands (here let's assume `int'), you can define the macro safely as

     #define maxint(a,b) \
       ({int _a = (a), _b = (b); _a > _b ? _a : _b; })

   Embedded statements are not allowed in constant expressions, such as
the value of an enumeration constant, the width of a bit field, or the
initial value of a static variable.

   If you don't know the type of the operand, you can still do this,
but you must use `typeof' (*note Typeof::.) or type naming (*note
Naming Types::.).

File: gcc.info,  Node: Local Labels,  Next: Labels as Values,  Prev: Statement Exprs,  Up: Extensions

Locally Declared Labels

   Each statement expression is a scope in which "local labels" can be
declared.  A local label is simply an identifier; you can jump to it
with an ordinary `goto' statement, but only from within the statement
expression it belongs to.

   A local label declaration looks like this:

     __label__ LABEL;


     __label__ LABEL1, LABEL2, ...;

   Local label declarations must come at the beginning of the statement
expression, right after the `({', before any ordinary declarations.

   The label declaration defines the label *name*, but does not define
the label itself.  You must do this in the usual way, with `LABEL:',
within the statements of the statement expression.

   The local label feature is useful because statement expressions are
often used in macros.  If the macro contains nested loops, a `goto' can
be useful for breaking out of them.  However, an ordinary label whose
scope is the whole function cannot be used: if the macro can be
expanded several times in one function, the label will be multiply
defined in that function.  A local label avoids this problem.  For

     #define SEARCH(array, target)                     \
     ({                                               \
       __label__ found;                                \
       typeof (target) _SEARCH_target = (target);      \
       typeof (*(array)) *_SEARCH_array = (array);     \
       int i, j;                                       \
       int value;                                      \
       for (i = 0; i < max; i++)                       \
         for (j = 0; j < max; j++)                     \
           if (_SEARCH_array[i][j] == _SEARCH_target)  \
             { value = i; goto found; }              \
       value = -1;                                     \
      found:                                           \
       value;                                          \

File: gcc.info,  Node: Labels as Values,  Next: Nested Functions,  Prev: Local Labels,  Up: Extensions

Labels as Values

   You can get the address of a label defined in the current function
(or a containing function) with the unary operator `&&'.  The value has
type `void *'.  This value is a constant and can be used wherever a
constant of that type is valid.  For example:

     void *ptr;
     ptr = &&foo;

   To use these values, you need to be able to jump to one.  This is
done with the computed goto statement(1), `goto *EXP;'.  For example,

     goto *ptr;

Any expression of type `void *' is allowed.

   One way of using these constants is in initializing a static array
that will serve as a jump table:

     static void *array[] = { &&foo, &&bar, &&hack };

   Then you can select a label with indexing, like this:

     goto *array[i];

Note that this does not check whether the subscript is in bounds--array
indexing in C never does that.

   Such an array of label values serves a purpose much like that of the
`switch' statement.  The `switch' statement is cleaner, so use that
rather than an array unless the problem does not fit a `switch'
statement very well.

   Another use of label values is in an interpreter for threaded code.
The labels within the interpreter function can be stored in the
threaded code for super-fast dispatching.

   You can use this mechanism to jump to code in a different function. 
If you do that, totally unpredictable things will happen.  The best way
to avoid this is to store the label address only in automatic variables
and never pass it as an argument.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1)  The analogous feature in Fortran is called an assigned goto,
but that name seems inappropriate in C, where one can do more than
simply store label addresses in label variables.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Nested Functions,  Next: Naming Types,  Prev: Labels as Values,  Up: Extensions

Nested Functions

   A "nested function" is a function defined inside another function.
The nested function's name is local to the block where it is defined.
For example, here we define a nested function named `square', and call
it twice:

     foo (double a, double b)
       double square (double z) { return z * z; }
       return square (a) + square (b);

   The nested function can access all the variables of the containing
function that are visible at the point of its definition.  This is
called "lexical scoping".  For example, here we show a nested function
which uses an inherited variable named `offset':

     bar (int *array, int offset, int size)
       int access (int *array, int index)
         { return array[index + offset]; }
       int i;
       for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
         ... access (array, i) ...

   It is possible to call the nested function from outside the scope of
its name by storing its address or passing the address to another

     hack (int *array, int size)
       void store (int index, int value)
         { array[index] = value; }
       intermediate (store, size);

   Here, the function `intermediate' receives the address of `store' as
an argument.  If `intermediate' calls `store', the arguments given to
`store' are used to store into `array'.  But this technique works only
so long as the containing function (`hack', in this example) does not
exit.  If you try to call the nested function through its address after
the containing function has exited, all hell will break loose.

   GNU CC implements taking the address of a nested function using a
technique called "trampolines".  A paper describing them is available
from `maya.idiap.ch' in the file `pub/tmb/usenix88-lexic.ps.Z'.

   A nested function can jump to a label inherited from a containing
function, provided the label was explicitly declared in the containing
function (*note Local Labels::.).  Such a jump returns instantly to the
containing function, exiting the nested function which did the `goto'
and any intermediate functions as well.  Here is an example:

     bar (int *array, int offset, int size)
       __label__ failure;
       int access (int *array, int index)
           if (index > size)
             goto failure;
           return array[index + offset];
       int i;
       for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
         ... access (array, i) ...
       return 0;
      /* Control comes here from `access'
         if it detects an error.  */
       return -1;

   A nested function always has internal linkage.  Declaring one with
`extern' is erroneous.  If you need to declare the nested function
before its definition, use `auto' (which is otherwise meaningless for
function declarations).

     bar (int *array, int offset, int size)
       __label__ failure;
       auto int access (int *, int);
       int access (int *array, int index)
           if (index > size)
             goto failure;
           return array[index + offset];

File: gcc.info,  Node: Naming Types,  Next: Typeof,  Prev: Nested Functions,  Up: Extensions

Naming an Expression's Type

   You can give a name to the type of an expression using a `typedef'
declaration with an initializer.  Here is how to define NAME as a type
name for the type of EXP:

     typedef NAME = EXP;

   This is useful in conjunction with the statements-within-expressions
feature.  Here is how the two together can be used to define a safe
"maximum" macro that operates on any arithmetic type:

     #define max(a,b) \
       ({typedef _ta = (a), _tb = (b);  \
         _ta _a = (a); _tb _b = (b);     \
         _a > _b ? _a : _b; })

   The reason for using names that start with underscores for the local
variables is to avoid conflicts with variable names that occur within
the expressions that are substituted for `a' and `b'.  Eventually we
hope to design a new form of declaration syntax that allows you to
declare variables whose scopes start only after their initializers;
this will be a more reliable way to prevent such conflicts.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Typeof,  Next: Lvalues,  Prev: Naming Types,  Up: Extensions

Referring to a Type with `typeof'

   Another way to refer to the type of an expression is with `typeof'.
The syntax of using of this keyword looks like `sizeof', but the
construct acts semantically like a type name defined with `typedef'.

   There are two ways of writing the argument to `typeof': with an
expression or with a type.  Here is an example with an expression:

     typeof (x[0](1))

This assumes that `x' is an array of functions; the type described is
that of the values of the functions.

   Here is an example with a typename as the argument:

     typeof (int *)

Here the type described is that of pointers to `int'.

   If you are writing a header file that must work when included in
ANSI C programs, write `__typeof__' instead of `typeof'. *Note
Alternate Keywords::.

   A `typeof'-construct can be used anywhere a typedef name could be
used.  For example, you can use it in a declaration, in a cast, or
inside of `sizeof' or `typeof'.

   * This declares `y' with the type of what `x' points to.

          typeof (*x) y;

   * This declares `y' as an array of such values.

          typeof (*x) y[4];

   * This declares `y' as an array of pointers to characters:

          typeof (typeof (char *)[4]) y;

     It is equivalent to the following traditional C declaration:

          char *y[4];

     To see the meaning of the declaration using `typeof', and why it
     might be a useful way to write, let's rewrite it with these macros:

          #define pointer(T)  typeof(T *)
          #define array(T, N) typeof(T [N])

     Now the declaration can be rewritten this way:

          array (pointer (char), 4) y;

     Thus, `array (pointer (char), 4)' is the type of arrays of 4
     pointers to `char'.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Lvalues,  Next: Conditionals,  Prev: Typeof,  Up: Extensions

Generalized Lvalues

   Compound expressions, conditional expressions and casts are allowed
as lvalues provided their operands are lvalues.  This means that you
can take their addresses or store values into them.

   For example, a compound expression can be assigned, provided the last
expression in the sequence is an lvalue.  These two expressions are

     (a, b) += 5
     a, (b += 5)

   Similarly, the address of the compound expression can be taken. 
These two expressions are equivalent:

     &(a, b)
     a, &b

   A conditional expression is a valid lvalue if its type is not void
and the true and false branches are both valid lvalues.  For example,
these two expressions are equivalent:

     (a ? b : c) = 5
     (a ? b = 5 : (c = 5))

   A cast is a valid lvalue if its operand is an lvalue.  A simple
assignment whose left-hand side is a cast works by converting the
right-hand side first to the specified type, then to the type of the
inner left-hand side expression.  After this is stored, the value is
converted back to the specified type to become the value of the
assignment.  Thus, if `a' has type `char *', the following two
expressions are equivalent:

     (int)a = 5
     (int)(a = (char *)(int)5)

   An assignment-with-arithmetic operation such as `+=' applied to a
cast performs the arithmetic using the type resulting from the cast,
and then continues as in the previous case.  Therefore, these two
expressions are equivalent:

     (int)a += 5
     (int)(a = (char *)(int) ((int)a + 5))

   You cannot take the address of an lvalue cast, because the use of its
address would not work out coherently.  Suppose that `&(int)f' were
permitted, where `f' has type `float'.  Then the following statement
would try to store an integer bit-pattern where a floating point number

     *&(int)f = 1;

   This is quite different from what `(int)f = 1' would do--that would
convert 1 to floating point and store it.  Rather than cause this
inconsistency, we think it is better to prohibit use of `&' on a cast.

   If you really do want an `int *' pointer with the address of `f',
you can simply write `(int *)&f'.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Conditionals,  Next: Long Long,  Prev: Lvalues,  Up: Extensions

Conditional Expressions with Omitted Operands

   The middle operand in a conditional expression may be omitted.  Then
if the first operand is nonzero, its value is the value of the
conditional expression.

   Therefore, the expression

     x ? : y

has the value of `x' if that is nonzero; otherwise, the value of `y'.

   This example is perfectly equivalent to

     x ? x : y

In this simple case, the ability to omit the middle operand is not
especially useful.  When it becomes useful is when the first operand
does, or may (if it is a macro argument), contain a side effect.  Then
repeating the operand in the middle would perform the side effect
twice.  Omitting the middle operand uses the value already computed
without the undesirable effects of recomputing it.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Long Long,  Next: Zero Length,  Prev: Conditionals,  Up: Extensions

Double-Word Integers

   GNU C supports data types for integers that are twice as long as
`long int'.  Simply write `long long int' for a signed integer, or
`unsigned long long int' for an unsigned integer.

   You can use these types in arithmetic like any other integer types.
Addition, subtraction, and bitwise boolean operations on these types
are open-coded on all types of machines.  Multiplication is open-coded
if the machine supports fullword-to-doubleword a widening multiply
instruction.  Division and shifts are open-coded only on machines that
provide special support.  The operations that are not open-coded use
special library routines that come with GNU CC.

   There may be pitfalls when you use `long long' types for function
arguments, unless you declare function prototypes.  If a function
expects type `int' for its argument, and you pass a value of type `long
long int', confusion will result because the caller and the subroutine
will disagree about the number of bytes for the argument. Likewise, if
the function expects `long long int' and you pass `int'.  The best way
to avoid such problems is to use prototypes.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Zero Length,  Next: Variable Length,  Prev: Long Long,  Up: Extensions

Arrays of Length Zero

   Zero-length arrays are allowed in GNU C.  They are very useful as
the last element of a structure which is really a header for a
variable-length object:

     struct line {
       int length;
       char contents[0];
       struct line *thisline = (struct line *)
         malloc (sizeof (struct line) + this_length);
       thisline->length = this_length;

   In standard C, you would have to give `contents' a length of 1, which
means either you waste space or complicate the argument to `malloc'.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Variable Length,  Next: Macro Varargs,  Prev: Zero Length,  Up: Extensions

Arrays of Variable Length

   Variable-length automatic arrays are allowed in GNU C.  These arrays
are declared like any other automatic arrays, but with a length that is
not a constant expression.  The storage is allocated at the point of
declaration and deallocated when the brace-level is exited.  For

     FILE *
     concat_fopen (char *s1, char *s2, char *mode)
       char str[strlen (s1) + strlen (s2) + 1];
       strcpy (str, s1);
       strcat (str, s2);
       return fopen (str, mode);

   Jumping or breaking out of the scope of the array name deallocates
the storage.  Jumping into the scope is not allowed; you get an error
message for it.

   You can use the function `alloca' to get an effect much like
variable-length arrays.  The function `alloca' is available in many
other C implementations (but not in all).  On the other hand,
variable-length arrays are more elegant.

   There are other differences between these two methods.  Space
allocated with `alloca' exists until the containing *function* returns.
The space for a variable-length array is deallocated as soon as the
array name's scope ends.  (If you use both variable-length arrays and
`alloca' in the same function, deallocation of a variable-length array
will also deallocate anything more recently allocated with `alloca'.)

   You can also use variable-length arrays as arguments to functions:

     struct entry
     tester (int len, char data[len][len])

   The length of an array is computed once when the storage is allocated
and is remembered for the scope of the array in case you access it with

   If you want to pass the array first and the length afterward, you can
use a forward declaration in the parameter list--another GNU extension.

     struct entry
     tester (int len; char data[len][len], int len)

   The `int len' before the semicolon is a "parameter forward
declaration", and it serves the purpose of making the name `len' known
when the declaration of `data' is parsed.

   You can write any number of such parameter forward declarations in
the parameter list.  They can be separated by commas or semicolons, but
the last one must end with a semicolon, which is followed by the "real"
parameter declarations.  Each forward declaration must match a "real"
declaration in parameter name and data type.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Macro Varargs,  Next: Subscripting,  Prev: Variable Length,  Up: Extensions

Macros with Variable Numbers of Arguments

   In GNU C, a macro can accept a variable number of arguments, much as
a function can.  The syntax for defining the macro looks much like that
used for a function.  Here is an example:

     #define eprintf(format, args...)  \
      fprintf (stderr, format, ## args)

   Here `args' is a "rest argument": it takes in zero or more
arguments, as many as the call contains.  All of them plus the commas
between them form the value of `args', which is substituted into the
macro body where `args' is used.  Thus, we have these expansions:

     eprintf ("%s:%d: ", input_file_name, line_number)
     fprintf (stderr, "%s:%d: ", input_file_name, line_number)

Note that the comma after the string constant comes from the definition
of `eprintf', whereas the last comma comes from the value of `args'.

   The reason for using `##' is to handle the case when `args' matches
no arguments at all.  In this case, `args' has an empty value.  In this
case, the second comma in the definition becomes an embarrassment: if
it got through to the expansion of the macro, we would get something
like this:

     fprintf (stderr, "success!\n", )

which is invalid C syntax.  `##' gets rid of the comma, so we get the
following instead:

     fprintf (stderr, "success!\n")

   This is a special feature of the GNU C preprocessor: `##' adjacent
to a rest argument discards the token on the other side of the `##', if
the rest argument value is empty.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Subscripting,  Next: Pointer Arith,  Prev: Macro Varargs,  Up: Extensions

Non-Lvalue Arrays May Have Subscripts

   Subscripting is allowed on arrays that are not lvalues, even though
the unary `&' operator is not.  For example, this is valid in GNU C
though not valid in other C dialects:

     struct foo {int a[4];};
     struct foo f();
     bar (int index)
       return f().a[index];

File: gcc.info,  Node: Pointer Arith,  Next: Initializers,  Prev: Subscripting,  Up: Extensions

Arithmetic on `void'- and Function-Pointers

   In GNU C, addition and subtraction operations are supported on
pointers to `void' and on pointers to functions.  This is done by
treating the size of a `void' or of a function as 1.

   A consequence of this is that `sizeof' is also allowed on `void' and
on function types, and returns 1.

   The option `-Wpointer-arith' requests a warning if these extensions
are used.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Initializers,  Next: Constructors,  Prev: Pointer Arith,  Up: Extensions

Non-Constant Initializers

   The elements of an aggregate initializer for an automatic variable
are not required to be constant expressions in GNU C.  Here is an
example of an initializer with run-time varying elements:

     foo (float f, float g)
       float beat_freqs[2] = { f-g, f+g };

File: gcc.info,  Node: Constructors,  Next: Labeled Elements,  Prev: Initializers,  Up: Extensions

Constructor Expressions

   GNU C supports constructor expressions.  A constructor looks like a
cast containing an initializer.  Its value is an object of the type
specified in the cast, containing the elements specified in the

   Usually, the specified type is a structure.  Assume that `struct
foo' and `structure' are declared as shown:

     struct foo {int a; char b[2];} structure;

Here is an example of constructing a `struct foo' with a constructor:

     structure = ((struct foo) {x + y, 'a', 0});

This is equivalent to writing the following:

       struct foo temp = {x + y, 'a', 0};
       structure = temp;

   You can also construct an array.  If all the elements of the
constructor are (made up of) simple constant expressions, suitable for
use in initializers, then the constructor is an lvalue and can be
coerced to a pointer to its first element, as shown here:

     char **foo = (char *[]) { "x", "y", "z" };

   Array constructors whose elements are not simple constants are not
very useful, because the constructor is not an lvalue.  There are only
two valid ways to use it: to subscript it, or initialize an array
variable with it.  The former is probably slower than a `switch'
statement, while the latter does the same thing an ordinary C
initializer would do.  Here is an example of subscripting an array

     output = ((int[]) { 2, x, 28 }) [input];

   Constructor expressions for scalar types and union types are is also
allowed, but then the constructor expression is equivalent to a cast.

File: gcc.info,  Node: Labeled Elements,  Next: Cast to Union,  Prev: Constructors,  Up: Extensions

Labeled Elements in Initializers

   Standard C requires the elements of an initializer to appear in a
fixed order, the same as the order of the elements in the array or
structure being initialized.

   In GNU C you can give the elements in any order, specifying the array
indices or structure field names they apply to.

   To specify an array index, write `[INDEX]' before the element value.
 For example,

     int a[6] = { [4] 29, [2] 15 };

is equivalent to

     int a[6] = { 0, 0, 15, 0, 29, 0 };

The index values must be constant expressions, even if the array being
initialized is automatic.

   In a structure initializer, specify the name of a field to initialize
with `FIELDNAME:' before the element value.  For example, given the
following structure,

     struct point { int x, y; };

the following initialization

     struct point p = { y: yvalue, x: xvalue };

is equivalent to

     struct point p = { xvalue, yvalue };

   You can also use an element label when initializing a union, to
specify which element of the union should be used.  For example,

     union foo { int i; double d; };
     union foo f = { d: 4 };

will convert 4 to a `double' to store it in the union using the second
element.  By contrast, casting 4 to type `union foo' would store it
into the union as the integer `i', since it is an integer.  (*Note Cast
to Union::.)

   You can combine this technique of naming elements with ordinary C
initialization of successive elements.  Each initializer element that
does not have a label applies to the next consecutive element of the
array or structure.  For example,

     int a[6] = { [1] v1, v2, [4] v4 };

is equivalent to

     int a[6] = { 0, v1, v2, 0, v4, 0 };

   Labeling the elements of an array initializer is especially useful
when the indices are characters or belong to an `enum' type. For

     int whitespace[256]
       = { [' '] 1, ['\t'] 1, ['\h'] 1,
           ['\f'] 1, ['\n'] 1, ['\r'] 1 };

File: gcc.info,  Node: Case Ranges,  Next: Function Attributes,  Prev: Cast to Union,  Up: Extensions

Case Ranges

   You can specify a range of consecutive values in a single `case'
label, like this:

     case LOW ... HIGH:

This has the same effect as the proper number of individual `case'
labels, one for each integer value from LOW to HIGH, inclusive.

   This feature is especially useful for ranges of ASCII character

     case 'A' ... 'Z':

   *Be careful:* Write spaces around the `...', for otherwise it may be
parsed wrong when you use it with integer values.  For example, write

     case 1 ... 5:

rather than this:

     case 1...5:

File: gcc.info,  Node: Cast to Union,  Next: Case Ranges,  Prev: Labeled Elements,  Up: Extensions

Cast to a Union Type

   A cast to union type is like any other cast, except that the type
specified is a union type.  You can specify the type either with `union
TAG' or with a typedef name.

   The types that may be cast to the union type are those of the members
of the union.  Thus, given the following union and variables:

     union foo { int i; double d; };
     int x;
     double y;

both `x' and `y' can be cast to type `union' foo.

   Using the cast as the right-hand side of an assignment to a variable
of union type is equivalent to storing in a member of the union:

     union foo u;
     u = (union foo) x  ==  u.i = x
     u = (union foo) y  ==  u.d = y

   You can also use the union cast as a function argument:

     void hack (union foo);
     hack ((union foo) x);