This file describes various problems that have been encountered in
compiling, installing and running groff.  Suggestions for additions or
other improvements to this file are welcome.

* gcc 2.3.3 fails to compile pic/object.cc.

Apply the following patch:

Thu Apr  1 12:06:03 1993  Brendan Kehoe  (brendan@lisa.cygnus.com)

	* cp-init.c (expand_default_init): Don't clear DECL_REGISTER.

*** cp-init.c.~2~	Mon Mar 29 21:48:36 1993
--- cp-init.c	Thu Apr  1 12:00:33 1993
*************** expand_default_init (binfo, true_exp, ex
*** 1141,1149 ****
-   /* ARM $7.1.1: "[register] may be ignored and in most implementations
-      it will be ignored if the address of the variable is taken."
-      Since we're likely to do just that in the ctor call, clear this.  */
-   DECL_REGISTER (exp) = 0;
    rval = build_method_call (exp, constructor_name (type),
  			    parms, binfo, flags|xxref_init_possible);
--- 1141,1144 ----

* On a DECstation or other machine using a MIPS cpu, gcc/g++ 2.2.2
gets a fatal signal while compiling tbl/main.c and tbl/table.c.

Upgrade to gcc 2.3 or compile those files without -O.

* I get lots of `numeric overflow' error messages whenever I run
groff; I compiled groff with AT&T C++ 2.0 with an ANSI C compiler.

Make sure -DCFRONT_ANSI_BUG is included in DEFINES in the top-level
Makefile.  If that doesn't solve the problem, define INT_MIN as
-INT_MAX in libgroff/lib.h.

* I get errors when I try to compile groff with Sun C++.

Groff requires header files that are moderately compatible with AT&T
C++ and ANSI C.  With some versions of Sun C++, the supplied header
files need some of the following changes to meet this requirement:
<string.h> must declare the mem* functions, (just add `#include
<memory.h>' to <string.h>); the first argument to fopen and freopen
should be declared as `const char *'; the first argument to fread
should be declared as `void *'; the first argument to fwrite should be
declared as `const void *'; malloc should be declared to return `void
*'; in <alloca.h>, the declaration `extern "C" { void
*__builtin_alloca(int); }' should be added; declarations of getopt(),
optarg, optind and opterr should be added to <stdlib.h>; in
<sys/signal.h> the return type and the second argument type of
signal() should be changed to be `void (*)(int)'.

You can either change them in place, or copy them to some other
directory and include that directory with a -I option.

* I get errors when I try to compile groff with DEC C++.

Fix the declaration of write() in <unistd.h> so that the second
argument is a const char *.  Fix the declaration of open() in
<sys/file.h> so that the first argument is a const char *.

* On Ultrix, the make stops with the message

  *** Error code 1


for no apparent reason.

Use GNU make.

* I'm having problems compiling groff on 386BSD 0.1.

If you're using ash as /bin/sh, you'll need the following patch.

*** gendef.sh.org	Sun Jun 30 13:30:36 1991
--- gendef.sh	Sun Feb 28 10:23:49 1993
*** 3,9 ****
! defs="#define $1"
  for def
--- 3,10 ----
! x=$1
! defs="#define $x"
  for def

You'll also need to change dirnamemax.c so that it doesn't use

* While compiling on Xenix, ranlib libgroff.a fails.

The system ranlib can't handle externals longer than 40 characters.
Use the ranlib included in demon.co.uk:/pub/xenix/g++-1.40.3a.v1

* Groff can't handle my troff document. It works fine with AT&T troff.

Read the section on incompatibilities in gtroff(1).  Try using the -C
option.  Alternatively there's the sed script in tmac/fixmacros.sed
which will attempt to edit a file of macros so that it can be used
with groff without the -C flag.

* groff -Tdvi produces dvi files that use fonts at weird magnifications.

Yes, it does.  You may need to compile fonts with Metafont at these
magnifications. The CompileFonts script in the devdvi/generate
directory may help you to do this. (It will take a *long* time.)

* pic output is not centered horizontally; pictures sometimes run off
the bottom of the page.

The macro package you are using is not supplying appropriate definitions
of PS and PE.  Give groff a -mpic option.

* I'm having problems including PostScript illustrations using the PSPIC

A PostScript document must meet three requirements in order to be
included with the PSPIC macro: it must comply with the Adobe Document
Structuring Conventions; it must contain a BoundingBox line; it must
be ``well-behaved''.  The BoundingBox line should be of the form:

  %%BoundingBox: llx lly urx ury

where llx, lly, urx, ury are the coordinates of the lower left x,
lower left y, upper right x, upper right y of the bounding box of
marks on the page expressed as integers in the default PostScript
coordinate system (72 units per inch, origin at bottom left corner).
A useful tactic is to print out the illustration by itself (you may
need to add a `showpage' at the end), and physically measure the
bounding box.  For more detail on these requirements, read the
specification of Encapsulated PostScript format.  (This is available
from the Adobe file server; send a message with a body of `help' to

* I've configured groff for A4 paper, but gtroff still seems to think
that the length of a page (as returned by \n(.p) is 11 inches.

This is intentional.  The PAGE option is used only by grops.  For
compatibility with ditroff, the default page length in gtroff is
always 11 inches.  The page length can be changed with the `pl'

* Groff doesn't use the font names I'm used to.

Use the `ftr' request.  See gtroff(1).

* I get errors using the Unix -ms macros with groff -e -C.

Apply this change:

*** /usr/lib/ms/ms.eqn	Tue Apr 25 02:14:28 1989
--- ms.eqn	Sun Nov 11 10:33:59 1990
*** 22,29 ****
  .	\" EN - end of a displayed equation
  .de EN
! .if !\\*(10 .br
  .rm EZ
  .nr ZN \\n(dn
  .if \\n(ZN>0 .if \\n(YE=0 .LP
--- 22,30 ----
  .	\" EN - end of a displayed equation
  .de EN
! .if \\n(.k>0 .br
+ .ds 10 \\*(EZ\\
  .rm EZ
  .nr ZN \\n(dn
  .if \\n(ZN>0 .if \\n(YE=0 .LP

* gpic doesn't accept the syntax `chop N M' for chopping both ends of a

The correct syntax is `chop N chop M'.

* With gpic -t, when I print `line ->; box' using a dvi to ps
program, the arrow head sticks through into the inside of the box.

The dvi to ps program should be modified to set the line cap and
line join parameters to 1 while printing tpic specials.

* When I print the output groff -Tps, the output is always shifted up
by about 0.7 inches; I'm using 8.5x11 inch paper.

Make sure that PAGE is defined to be `letter' in the top-level

* When I try to print the output of groff -Tps, I get no output at all
from the printer, and the log file shows the error
%%[ error: undefined; offendingcommand: BP ]%%
I using TranScript spooling software.

This is a bug in the page reversal filter in early versions of
TranScript.  Change the `broken' parameter in
/usr/local/lib/groff/font/devps/DESC to 7.

* When I preview groff -Tps output using the Sun OpenWindows 2.0 pageview
program, all the pages are displayed on top of each other.

This is a defect in pageview.  Change the `broken' parameter in
/usr/local/lib/groff/font/devps/DESC to 2.

* With groff -TX75, -TX100or -X, I can only view the first page.

The left mouse button brings up a menu that allows you to view other

* When I print the output of groff -Tdvi, I just get a black dot in
upper left corner.

Some dvi drivers (notably early versions of xtex) do not correctly
handle dvi files that use a resolution different from that used by dvi
files produced by TeX.  Try getting a more up to date driver.

* I get lots of errors when I use groff with the AT&T -mm macros.

The AT&T -mm macros need a few changes to work with groff; `make
install.dwbmm' will copy your -mm macros to groff's macro directory
and make the necessary changes.  You may need to edit the commands for
the install.mm target in the Makefile.  Alternatively use the groff
-mm macros.

* gtroff doesn't understand lines like `.ce99' with no space between
the name of the request or macro and the arguments.

Gtroff requires a space between macro or request and its arguments
because it allows the use of long names for macros and requests.  You
can use the -C option or the `cp' request to put gtroff into a
compatibility mode in which it is not possible to use long names for
macros but in which no space is required between macros and their
arguments.  The use of compatibility mode is strongly discouraged.

* gtroff gives warnings about lines like
  .ev	\" a comment
(with a tab after the .ev).

A tab character cannot be used as a substitute for a space character
(except in one case: between a control character at the beginning of a
line and the name of a macro or request).  For example, in Unix troff
  .ps	\" restore the previous point size
(with a tab after the .ps) will NOT restore the previous point-size;
instead it will be silently ignored.  Since this is very likely to be
an error, gtroff can give a warning about it.  If you want to align
comments, you can do it like this:
  .ev\"				\" a comment

* I don't like the page headers and footers produced by groff -man.

There seem to be many different styles of page header and footer
produced by different versions of the -man macros.  You will need to
modify macros/tmac.an to suit your personal taste.  For example, if
you want the center of the page header to say
  UNIX Programmer's Manual
you will need to change the line
  .el .ds an-extra3 \"UNIX Programmer's Manual
  .el .ds an-extra3 UNIX Programmer's Manual

* While formatting a manual page, groff complains about not being able to
break lines.  The problem seems to be caused by a line like:
  .TP \w'label'+2

The -man documentation says that the default scale indicator for TP
macro is `n'.  The groff -man macros implement this correctly, so that
the argument will be evaluated as if it were
The Unix -man macros don't implement this correctly (probably because
it's hard to do in Unix troff); they just append `n' to the entire
argument, so that it will be evaluated as if it were
The solution is to fix the manual page:
  .TP \w'label'u+2

* I'm having problems formatting Ultrix man pages with groff -man.

The Ultrix man pages use a number of non-standard extensions to the
Unix man macros.  One solution is to use the Ultrix -man macros with
groff.  Rename /usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.an to
/usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.an.gnu, copy /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an to
/usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.an and apply the following patch (from
Frank Wortner):

*** /usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.an     Wed Sep  9 12:29:28 1992
--- /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an       Fri Jul 24 19:58:19 1992
*** 489,495 ****
  .     \" make special case of shift out of italic
  .de }S
  .ds ]F
! .if \\$12 .if !\\$5 .ds ]F \^
  .ie !\\$4 .}S \\$2 \\$1 "\\$3\f\\$1\\$4\\*(]F" "\\$5" "\\$6" "\\$7" "\\$8" "\\$9"
  .el \\$3
--- 489,495 ----
  .     \" make special case of shift out of italic
  .de }S
  .ds ]F
! .if \\$12 .if !\\$5 .ds ]F\^
  .ie !\\$4 .}S \\$2 \\$1 "\\$3\f\\$1\\$4\\*(]F" "\\$5" "\\$6" "\\$7" "\\$8" "\\$9"
  .el \\$3

Another possible solution is to install tmac/man.ultrix as

* I'm having problems formatting HP-UX 9.0 man pages with groff -man.

Rename /usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.an to (for example)
/usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.gan, copy HP's tmac.an into
/usr/local/lib/groff/tmac/tmac.an, and either put `.cp 1' at the
beginning or filter it (and any files it .so's) through

* I'm having problems formatting man pages produced by the perl
wrapman script.

Some versions of wrapman have a superfluous blank line before the .TH
line.  This must be deleted.  Then either use groff -C, or apply the
following patch:

*** wrapman.~2~	Sun Jan 19 12:10:24 1992
--- wrapman	Fri Apr  2 12:12:57 1993
*** 35,41 ****
      $line1 .= <IN> if $line1 =~ /eval/;
      $line1 .= <IN> if $line1 =~ /argv/;
      $line2 = <IN>;
!     next if $line2 eq "'di';\n";
      # Pull the old switcheroo.
--- 35,41 ----
      $line1 .= <IN> if $line1 =~ /eval/;
      $line1 .= <IN> if $line1 =~ /argv/;
      $line2 = <IN>;
!     next if $line2 eq "'di ';\n";
      # Pull the old switcheroo.
*** 49,56 ****
      print OUT $line1;
      print OUT <<EOF;
! 'di';
! 'ig00';
  # $header
--- 49,57 ----
      print OUT $line1;
      print OUT <<EOF;
! 'di ';
! 'ds 00 \\"';
! 'ig 00 ';
  # $header
*** 72,85 ****
      # These next few lines are legal in both Perl and nroff.
! $null.00;                       # finish .ig
  'di           \\" finish diversion--previous line must be blank
  .nr nl 0-1    \\" fake up transition to first page again
  .nr % 0         \\" start at page 1
! '; __END__ ##### From here on it's a standard manual page #####
  .TH $PROG 1 "$month $mday, 19$year"
- .AT 3
  $prog \\- whatever
--- 73,85 ----
      # These next few lines are legal in both Perl and nroff.
! $null.00 ;                      # finish .ig
  'di           \\" finish diversion--previous line must be blank
  .nr nl 0-1    \\" fake up transition to first page again
  .nr % 0         \\" start at page 1
! .\\"'; __END__ ##### From here on it's a standard manual page #####
  .TH $PROG 1 "$month $mday, 19$year"
  $prog \\- whatever

* When I preview documents using -TX75 or -TX100, the layout is not the same
as when I print the document with -Tps: the line and page breaks come
in different places.

Use groff -X -Tps.

* When I try to run gxditview, I get the error:
Error: Widget viewport has zero width and/or height

This error means you haven't correctly installed the application
defaults file, GXditview.ad; ``make install'' does this for you
automatically, so either you didn't do ``make install'', or you don't
have imake configured correctly.

* groff uses up an enormous amount of memory processing large files.
I'm using 386BSD 0.1.

386BSD includes an old version of g++, 1.39, which has a bug that
causes a major memory leak in gtroff.  Apply the following fix to g++
and recompile groff:

*** cplus-decl.c.~1~	Mon Aug  6 05:28:59 1990
--- cplus-decl.c	Wed Jun  5 08:55:04 1991
*** 7951,7961 ****
        /* At the end, call delete if that's what's requested.  */
        if (TREE_GETS_DELETE (current_class_type))
  	exprstmt = build_method_call (build1 (NOP_EXPR, TYPE_POINTER_TO (current_class_type), error_mark_node),
  				      get_identifier (OPERATOR_DELETE_FORMAT),
! 				      build_tree_list (NULL_TREE, integer_zero_node),
        else if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type))
  	exprstmt = build_x_delete (ptr_type_node, current_class_decl, 0);
  	exprstmt = 0;
--- 7951,7961 ----
        /* At the end, call delete if that's what's requested.  */
        if (TREE_GETS_DELETE (current_class_type))
  	exprstmt = build_method_call (build1 (NOP_EXPR, TYPE_POINTER_TO (current_class_type), error_mark_node),
  				      get_identifier (OPERATOR_DELETE_FORMAT),
! 				      build_tree_list (NULL_TREE, current_class_decl),
        else if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type))
  	exprstmt = build_x_delete (ptr_type_node, current_class_decl, 0);
  	exprstmt = 0;