dnl	$OpenBSD: m4.common,v 1.88 2009/05/31 18:18:39 miod Exp $
dnl Copyright (c) 2004 Todd T. Fries <>
dnl Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
dnl purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
dnl copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
dnl simulate an include path with a macro 'includeit'.
dnl TopPart
dnl Describes the beginning of the distribution files listing.
`The MACHINE-specific portion of the OpenBSD OSREV release is found in the
"MACHINE" subdirectory of the distribution.  That subdirectory is laid
out as follows:


	INSTALL.MACHINE	Installation notes; this file.

	SHA256		Output of the sum(1) program using the option
			-a sha256, usable for verification of the
			correctness of downloaded files.')dnl
dnl Change the quote.  There were too many `word' situations that would
dnl have to have been changed to ``word''.  The quote gets changed to
dnl {:- and -:}.  It can really be anything, but it needs to be unique.
dnl Conventions when editing:
dnl o base`'OSrev is required because if it appears as baseOSrev the
dnl   defined value OSrev does not get substituted.  Same goes for MACHINE,
dnl   MACHINE_ARCH and OSREV, assigned as cmd line parameters to m4 in the
dnl   Makefile.
dnl o `include', `define' and `shift' is required as these three words
dnl   are m4 reserved words that evaluate to an empty string if not quoted.
dnl ========== Distribution files description
dnl (usually used by arch/contents)
dnl printsize(value)
dnl Prints a size in KB if it is less than 10^6, in MB otherwise.
dnl The size is rounded down (this means you can still get 0.9 MB for
dnl a size between 1,000,000 and 1,048,576 bytes).
dnl Used by showsize() below.
eval($1/1024).eval($1*10/1024%10) KB,dnl
eval($1/1024/1024).eval($1/1024*10/1024%10) MB)-:})dnl
dnl showsize(gzipped size, uncompressed size)
dnl If both the 1st and the 2nd argument exist, show the sizes.
dnl Otherwise, evaluate to NULL.
dnl showsize() must not be on a new line.  It creates its own new line if
dnl there are sizes to display, otherwise, evaluates to NULL
dnl XXX fix to allow - empty 1st arg, for files uncompressed
dnl                  - empty 2nd arg, for files where only compressed size
dnl                    is known
		 [ printsize($1) gzipped, printsize($2) uncompressed ]-:})-:})dnl
dnl DistributionDescription( number of sets )
dnl Header paragraph before the individual sets descriptions.
{:-The OpenBSD/MACHINE binary distribution sets contain the binaries which
comprise the OpenBSD OSREV release for MACHINE systems.  There are $1
binary distribution sets.  The binary distribution sets can be found in
the "MACHINE" subdirectory of the OpenBSD OSREV distribution tree,
and are as follows:-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDbase( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes baseXX.tgz.
{:-	base{:--:}OSrev	 The OpenBSD/MACHINE OSREV base binary distribution.  You MUST
		 install this distribution set.  It contains the base OpenBSD
		 utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be
		 minimally functional.
		 ifelse(MDSO,,{:-It excludes everything described below.-:},{:-It includes shared library support, and excludes everything
		 described below.-:})showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDcomp( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes compXX.tgz.
{:-	comp{:--:}OSrev	 The OpenBSD/MACHINE Compiler tools.  All of the tools relating
		 to C, C++, Objective-C and Fortran are supported.  This set
		 includes the system {:-include-:} files (/usr/{:-include-:}), the linker,
		 the compiler tool chain, and the various system libraries{:--:}ifelse(MDSO,,.,{:-
		 (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of
		 the base set).-:})
		 This set also includes the manual pages for all of the
		 utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library
		 manual pages.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDetc( compressed size, uncompressed size [, noupgrade])
dnl Describes etcXX.tgz.
{:-	etc{:--:}OSrev	 This distribution set contains the system configuration
		 files that reside in /etc and in several other places.
		 This set MUST be installed{:--:}ifelse(X$3,X,{:- if you are installing the
		 system from scratch, but should NOT be used if you are
		 upgrading.  (If you are upgrading, it's recommended that
		 you get a copy of this set and CAREFULLY upgrade your
		 configuration files by hand; see the section named 
		 Upgrading a previously-installed OpenBSD System" below.)-:},.)showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDgame( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes gameXX.tgz.
{:-	game{:--:}OSrev	 This set includes the games and their manual pages.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDman( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes manXX.tgz.
{:-	man{:--:}OSrev	 This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries
		 and other software contained in the base set.
		 Note that it does not {:-include-:} any of the manual pages
		 that are included in the other sets.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDmisc( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes miscXX.tgz.
{:-	misc{:--:}OSrev	 This set includes the system dictionaries (which are rather
		 large), and the typesettable document set.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDxbase( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes xbaseXX.tgz.
{:-	xbase{:--:}OSrev  This set includes the base X distribution.  This includes
		 programs, headers and libraries.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDxetc( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes xetcXX.tgz.
{:-	xetc{:--:}OSrev	 This set includes the X window system configuration files
		 that reside in /etc.  It's the equivalent of etc{:--:}OSrev for X.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDxshare( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes xshareXX.tgz.
{:-	xshare{:--:}OSrev This set includes all text files equivalent between all
dnl OpenBSDxfont( compressed size, uncompressed size )
dnl Describes xfontXX.tgz.
{:-	xfont{:--:}OSrev  This set includes all of the X fonts.showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDxserv(compressed size,uncompressed size,optional extra notes)
dnl Describes xservXX.tgz.
{:-	xserv{:--:}OSrev  This set includes all of the X servers.$3{:--:}showsize($1,$2)-:})dnl
dnl Floppy and bootable cdrom stuff
{:-	floppy{:--:}OSrev.fs	The standard MACHINE boot and installation floppy;
			see below.-:})dnl
{:-	install{:--:}OSrev.iso	The MACHINE boot and installation CD-ROM image,
			which contains the base and X sets, so that install
			or upgrade can be done without network connectivity.-:})dnl
{:-	cd{:--:}OSrev.iso	A miniroot filesystem image suitable to be used
			as a bootable CD-ROM image, but will require the base
			and X sets be found via another media or network;
			otherwise similar to the bsd.rd image above.-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDfloppydesc(number of floppies, Article, plural)
dnl Describe what the boot floppy/ies contain and how they may be used.
dnl Use as: OpenBSDfloppydesc(single,The) or OpenBSDfloppydesc(three,Each,s)
{:-Bootable installation/upgrade floppy image$3:

	The $1 floppy image$3 can be copied to a floppy using rawrite.exe,
	ntrw.exe, or `dd', as described later in this document.
	$2 floppy image is a bootable install floppy which can be used
	both to install and to upgrade OpenBSD to the current version.
	It is also useful for maintenance and disaster recovery.-:})dnl
dnl A few extra straightforward macros describing more components.
{:-	*.tgz		MACHINE binary distribution sets; see below.-:})dnl
{:-	bsd		A stock GENERIC MACHINE kernel which will be
			installed on your system during the install.-:})dnl
{:-		A stock GENERIC.MP MACHINE kernel, with support for
			multiprocessor machines, which can be used instead
			of the GENERIC kernel after the install.-:})dnl
{:-	bsd.rd		A compressed RAMDISK kernel; the embedded
			filesystem contains the installation tools.
			Used for simple installation from a pre-existing
{:-	miniroot{:--:}OSrev.fs	A miniroot filesystem image to be used if you
			for some reason can't or don't want to use the
			ramdisk installation method.-:})dnl
dnl ========== Various Install Instructions
dnl (usually used by arch/install)
dnl OpenBSDInstallPrelude(troublesome disk types)
dnl Installation introduction.  Warns about disk geometry hell if argument
dnl is not empty.
{:-Installing OpenBSD is a relatively complex process, but if you have
this document in hand and are careful to read and remember the
information which is presented to you by the install program, it
shouldn't be too much trouble.ifelse(X$1,X,,{:-

If the disks connected to your machine are $1,
it is recommended that you know their geometry, i.e. the sector size (note
that sector sizes other than 512 bytes are not currently supported), the
number of sectors per track, the number of tracks per cylinder (also known
as the number of heads), and the number of cylinders on the disk.  The
OpenBSD kernel will try to discover these parameters on its own, and if it
can it will print them at boot time.  If possible, you should use the
parameters it prints.  (You might not be able to because you're sharing your
disk with another operating system, or because your disk is old enough that
the kernel can't figure out its geometry.)-:})-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDInstallPart2
dnl Describes the beginning of the installation process, once the
dnl installation media is ready.
{:-You should now be ready to install OpenBSD.

The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while getting
OpenBSD installed on your hard disk.

The installation procedure is designed to gather as many information about
your system setup as possible at the beginning, so that no human interaction
is required as soon as the questions are over.

The order of these questions might be quite disconcerting if you are used to
other installation procedures, including older OpenBSD versions.

If any question has a default answer, it will be displayed in brackets ("[]")
after the question.  If you wish to stop the installation, you may hit
Control-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation
process again from scratch.  Using Control-Z to suspend the process may be a
better option, or at any prompt enter `!' to get a shell, from which 'exit'
will return you back to that prompt (no refresh of the prompt will occur,
dnl OpenBSDInstallPart3(warn geometry, disk type, disk type, disk type)
dnl Describes the boot of the ramdisk, the expected disk devices
dnl names, and warns bore the reader with geometry concerns if the
dnl first argument is not empty.
dnl Describes the serial terminal setup.
{:-	Once the kernel has loaded, you will be presented with the
	OpenBSD kernel boot messages.  You will want to read them
	to determine your disks name and geometry.  Its name will
	be something like ifelse(X$2,X,{:-"sd0" for SCSI drives, or "wd0" for IDE
	drives-:},$2){:--:}ifelse(X$3,X,,{:-, $3-:}){:--:}ifelse(X$4,X,,{:-, $4-:}){:--:}.{:--:}ifelse(X$1,X,,{:-
	As mentioned above, you will need your disks geometry (which
	will be printed on a line beginning with its name) when
	creating OpenBSD partitions.-:})
	You will also need to know the device name to tell the
	install tools what disk to install on.  If you cannot read
	the messages as they scroll by, do not worry -- you can get
	at this information later inside the install program.

dnl dot.profile
	After the kernel is done initialization, you will be asked whether
	you wish to do an "(I)nstall" or an "(U)pgrade".  Enter 'I' for a
	fresh install or 'U' to upgrade an existing installation.

dnl install.sub set_term
{:-	You will next be asked for your terminal type.-:},
{:-	If you are connected with a serial console, you will next be
	asked for your terminal type.-:})dnl

	You should choose the terminal type from amongst those listed.
	(If your terminal type is xterm, just use vt220).dnl

	If you are connected using a glass console, you will next be
	asked for your keyboard layout (the default being the US QWERTY
	layout).  Depending on your keyboard type, not all international
	layouts may be supported; answering `?' (which, on QWERTY layouts,
	is the key to the left of the right `sh{:--:}ift' key, shifted) will
	display a list of supported layouts.
	(If you do not need to change the keyboard layout, just press
dnl OpenBSDInstallPart4
dnl Describes the beginning of the bsd.rd operation.
dnl install.sub (install) hostname
{:-	The first question you will be asked is the system hostname.
	Reply with the name of the system, without any domain part.

dnl install.sub (install) donetconfig
	You will now be given an opportunity to configure the network.
	The network configuration you enter (if any) can then be used to
	do the install from another system using HTTP or FTP, and will
	also be the configuration used by the system after the installation
	is complete.

dnl XXX add a MDVLAN feature and document vlan setup
	The install program will give you a list of network interfaces you
	can configure.  For each network interface you select to configure,
	you will be asked for:

	- the symbolic host name to use (except for the first
	  interface setup, which will reuse the host name entered at the
	  beginning of the installation).

	- the IPv4 settings: address and netmask.  If the IP address
	  should be obtained from a DHCP server, simply enter ``dhcp''
	  when asked for the address.

	- the IPv6 settings (address, prefix length, and default router).
	  You may enter ``rtsol'' when asked for the address for the
	  interface to configure automatically via router sollicitation

	After all interfaces have been configured, if there have been
	any IPv4 interfaces setup, you will be asked for the IPv4 default
	route.  This step is skipped if you only have one IPv4 interface
	setup, and it is configured with DHCP.

	The install program will also ask you for your DNS domain name,
	and the domain name servers, unless this information has
	already been obtained from a DHCP server during interface setup.

	You will also be presented with an opportunity to do more
	manual configuration.  If you accept, you will be dropped
	to a shell; when you are done, enter `exit' to return to
	the installation program.

dnl install.sub (install) askpassword root
	You will then be asked to enter the initial root password
	of the system, twice.
	Although the install program will only check that the two
	passwords match, you should make sure to use a strong password.
	As a minimum, the password should be at least eight characters
	long and a mixture of both lower and uppercase letters, numbers
	and punctuation characters.

dnl install.sub (install) questions(): sshd/ntpd
	You will then be asked whether you want to start sshd(8) by
	default, as well as ntpd(8).  If you choose to start ntpd(8),
	you will be asked for your ntp server; if you don't have any
	preferred ntp server, press enter to confirm the default
	setting of using the servers.
dnl install.sub (install) questions(): MDXAPERTURE
	You will next be asked whether you intend to run the X Window
	System on your machine.  The install program needs to know
	this, to change a configuration setting controlling whether
	the X server will be able to access the xf86(4) driver; it
	is not necessary to answer `y' to this question if you only
	intend to run X client programs on a remote display.
dnl install.sub (install) questions(): MDXDM
	Since the X Window System can run on OpenBSD/MACHINE
	without the need for a configuration file, you will get asked-:},
{:-	If you answered `y' to this question, you will get asked-:})
	whether you want to start xdm on boot.
dnl install.sub (install) questions(): serial console setup
	If you are installing using a serial console, and since by default,
	the OpenBSD/MACHINE installation will only start terminals on
	the primary display device, the installation program will ask you
	whether you want to also enable an additional terminal on that
	line, and will allow you to select the line speed.

dnl install.sub (install) user_setup()
	You will now be given the possibility to setup a user account
	on the forthcoming system.  This user will be added to the
	`wheel' group.

	Enter the desired login name, or `n' if you do not want to
	add a user account at this point.  Valid login names are
	sequences of digits and lowercase letters, and must start
	with a lowercase letter.  If the login name matches this
	criteria, and doesn't conflict with any of the administrative
	user accounts (such as `root', `daemon' or `ftp'), you
	will be prompted with the users descriptive name, as well
	as its password, twice.
	As for the root password earlier, the install program will only
	check that the two passwords match, but you should make sure to
	use a strong password here as well.

	If you have chosen to setup a user account, and you had chosen
	to start sshd(8) on boot, you will be given the possibility to
	disable sshd(8) logins as root.
dnl install.sub (install) set_timezone
	You may now be given the opportunity to configure the time zone
	your system will be using (this depends on the installation
	media you are using).
	If the installation program skips this question, do not be
	alarmed, the time zone will be configured at the end
	of the installation.

dnl md_prep_disklabel loop
	The installation program will now tell you which disks
	it can install on, and ask you which it should use.
	Reply with the name of your root disk.-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDInstallMBRPart1
dnl Describes MBR partitioning. So much to save four lines of text
dnl duplicated 5 times.
{:-	Disks on OpenBSD/MACHINE are partitioned using the so-called
	``MBR'' partitioning scheme.  You will need to create one
	MBR partition, in which all the real OpenBSD partitions will
	be created.-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDInstallMBRPart2(needs OpenBSD partition active)
dnl Describes fdisk invocation
dnl md_prep_fdisk
{:-	The installation program will ask you if you want to use the
	whole disk for OpenBSD.  If you don't need to or don't intend
	to share the disk with other operating systems, answer `w'
	here.  The installation program will then create a single
	MBR partition spanning the whole disk, dedicated to OpenBSD.

	Otherwise, fdisk(8) will be invoked to let you to edit your MBR
	partitioning.  The current MBR partitions defined will be
	displayed and you will be allowed to modify them, add new
	partitions, and change which partition to boot from by default.

{:-	Note that you should make the OpenBSD partition the active
	partition at least until the install has been completed.

	After your OpenBSD MBR partition has been setup, the real
	partition setup can follow.-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDInstallPart5(mention about other OS partitions)
dnl Describes the disklabel operation
{:-	Next the disk label which defines the layout of the OpenBSD
	partitions must be set up.  Each file system you want will
	require a separate partition.

	You will be proposed a default partition layout, trying
	to set up separate partitions, disk size permitting.

	You will be given the possibility to either accept the proposed
	layout, or edit it, or create your own custom layout.  These last
	two choices will invoke the disklabel(8) interactive editor,
	allowing you to create your desired layout.

	Within the editor, you will probably start out with only the
	'c' partition of fstype 'unused' that represents the whole disk.
	This partition can not be modified.$1

	You must create partition 'a' as a native OpenBSD partition, i.e.
	one with "4.2BSD" as the fstype, to hold the root file system.

	In addition to partition 'a' you should create partition 'b' with
	fstype "swap", and native OpenBSD partitions to hold separate file
	systems such as /usr, /tmp, /var, and /home.

	You will need to provide a mount point for all partitions you
	{:-define-:}.  Partitions without mount points, or not of 4.2BSD fstype,
	will neither be formatted nor mounted during the installation.

	For quick help while in the interactive editor, enter '?'.  The
	`z' command (which deletes all partitions and starts with a
	clean label), the `A' command (which performs the automatic
	partition layout) and the `n' command (to change mount points)
	are of particular interest.

	Although the partitions position and size are written in exact
	sector values, you do not need a calculator to create your
	partitions!  Human-friendly units can be specified by adding `k',
	`m' or `g' after any numbers to have them converted to kilobytes,
	megabytes or gigabytes. Or you may specify a percentage of the
	disk size using `%' as the suffix.

	Enter 'M' to view the entire manual page (see the info on the
	``-E'' flag).  To exit the editor enter 'q'.-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDInstallPart6(other installation sources)
{:-	After the layout has been saved, new filesystems will be
	created on all partitions with mount points.
	This will DESTROY ALL EXISTING DATA on those partitions.

	After configuring your root disk, the installer will
	return to the list of available disks to configure.

	You can choose the other disks to use with OpenBSD in
	any order, and will get to setup their layout similarly
	to the root disk above. However, for non-root disks,
	you will not be proposed a default partition layout.

	When all your disks are configured, simply hit return
	at the disk prompt.

	After these preparatory steps have been completed, you will be
        able to extract the distribution sets onto your system.  There
        are several install methods supported; FTP, HTTP, tape,
	$1or a local disk partition.-:})dnl
dnl Notes for various installation methods.
{:-	To install via FTP or HTTP:
		To begin an FTP or HTTP install you will need the following
		pieces of information:
		1) Proxy server URL if you are using a URL-based FTP or
		   HTTP proxy (squid, CERN FTP, Apache 1.2 or higher).
		   You need to {:-define-:} a proxy if you are behind a
		   firewall that blocks outgoing FTP or HTTP connections
		   (assuming you have a proxy available to use).
		2) The IP address (or hostname if you configured
		   DNS servers earlier in the install) of an FTP or HTTP
		   server carrying the OpenBSD OSREV distribution.
		   The installation program will try to fetch a list
		   of such servers; depending on your network settings,
		   this might fail.  If the list could be fetched, it
		   will be displayed, and you can choose an entry from
		   the list (the first entries are expected to be the
		   closest mirrors to your location).
		3) The directory holding the distribution sets.
		   The default value of pub/OpenBSD/OSREV/MACHINE
		   is almost always correct on FTP servers; for HTTP
		   servers there is no standard location for this.
		4) For FTP installs only, the login and password for the
		   FTP account.  You will only be asked for a password for
		   non-anonymous FTP.

		Then refer to the section named "installation set selection"
dnl For arches where you can create a boot tape, $1 can be set as the
dnl file index of the first set, after the boot files.
{:-	To install from tape:
		Unlike all other installation methods, there is no way
		to know the names of the files on tape.  Because of this,
		it is impossible to check that the files on tape match
		the machine architecture and release of OpenBSD/MACHINE.

		Moreover, since tape filenames are not known, the file
		checksums can not be verified.  Use this installation
		method only if there is no better option.

		In order to install from tape, the distribution sets to be
		installed must have been written to tape previously, either
		in tar format or gzip-compressed tar format.

		You will also have to identify the tape device where the
		distribution sets are to be extracted from.  This will
		typically be "nrst0" (no-rewind, raw interface).

		Next you will have to specify how many files have to be
		skipped on the tape.  This number is usually zero{:--:}ifelse(X$1,X,,{:-, unless
		you have created a bootable tape, in which case the number
		will be $1-:}).

		The install program will not automatically detect whether
		an image has been compressed, so it will ask for that
		information before starting the extraction of each file.-:})dnl
{:-	To install from CD-ROM:
		When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked which
		device holds the distribution sets.  This will typically
		be "cd0".  If there is more than one partition on the
		CD-ROM, you will be asked which partition the distribution
		is to be loaded from.  This is normally partition "a".

		You will also have to provide the relative path to the
		directory on the CD-ROM which holds the distribution, for
		the MACHINE this is "OSREV/MACHINE".

		Then refer to the section named "installation set selection"
{:-	To install from an NFS mounted directory:
		When installing from an NFS-mounted directory, you must
		have completed network configuration above, and also
		set up the exported file system on the NFS server in

		First you must identify the IP address of the NFS server
		to load the distribution from, and the file system the
		server expects you to mount.

		The install program will also ask whether or not TCP
		should be used for transport (the default is UDP).  Note
		that TCP only works with newer NFS servers.

		You will also have to provide the relative path to the
		directory on the file system where the distribution sets
		are located.  Note that this path should not be prefixed
		with a '/'.

		Then refer to the section named "installation set selection"
dnl OpenBSDDISKInstall({:-<additional disk> or-:},   <-- $1
dnl		       {:-only -:},                  <-- $2
dnl                    {:- or <other fs name>-:})    <-- $3
dnl Note the spacing used above.  It is crucial to keep words from running
dnl together in the actual document.
dnl Arg 1 is optional.
dnl Choices for args 2 & 3:
dnl - OpenBSDDISKInstall(,{:-only -:})
dnl    (only have 1 fs possible, ffs)
dnl - OpenBSDDISKInstall(,,{:-or <insert some other filesystem name>-:})
dnl    (have another fs possible for reading during disk install)
dnl see $1, $2, and $3 below for further usage information.
{:-	To install from a local disk partition:
		When installing from a local disk partition, you will
		first have to identify which disk holds the distribution
		sets.  This is normally $1"sdN", where N is a number
		0 through 9.  Next you will have to identify the partition
		within that disk that holds the distribution; this is a
		single letter between 'a' and 'p'.

		You will also have to identify the type of file system
		residing in the partition identified.  Currently, you can
		$2{:--:}install from partitions that have been formatted as the
		Berkeley fast file system (ffs)$3.

		You will also have to provide the relative path to the
		directory on the file system where the distribution sets
		are located.  Note that this path should not be prefixed
		with a '/'.

dnl		Then refer to the section named "installation set selection"
dnl		below.
		Then refer to the next section.-:})dnl
{:-	Installation set selection:
		A list of available distribution sets found on the
		given location will be listed.

		You may individually select distribution sets to install,
		by entering their name, or wildcards (e.g. `*.tgz' or
		`base*|comp*', or `all' to select all the sets (which
		is what most users will want to do).
		You may also enter `abort' to deselect everything and
		restart the selection from scratch, or unselect sets
		by entering their name prefixed with `-' (e.g. `-x*').

		It is also possible to enter an arbitrary filename and
		have it treated as a file set.

		When you are done selecting distribution sets, enter
		`done'.  The files will begin to extract.-:})dnl
dnl Description of the end of the installation procedure.
{:-	After the files have been extracted, you will be given the choice
	to select a new location from which to install distribution sets.
	If there have been errors extracting the sets from the previous
	location, or if some sets have been missing, this allows you to
	select a better source.
	Also, if the installation program complains that the distribution
	sets you have been using do not match their recorded checksums, you
	might want to check your installation source (although this can
	happen between releases, if a snapshot is being updated on an FTP
	or HTTP server with newer files while you are installing).

{:-	The last thing you'll need to configure is the time zone your system
	will be using.  For this to work properly, it is expected that you
	have installed at least the "base{:--:}OSrev", "etc{:--:}OSrev",
	and "bsd" distribution sets.
{:-	The last thing you might need to configure, if you did not get
	the chance to earlier, is the time zone your system will be using.
	For this work properly, it is expected that you have installed at
	least the "base{:--:}OSrev", "etc{:--:}OSrev", and "bsd" distribution sets.

	The installation program will then proceed to save the system
	configuration, create all the device nodes needed by the installed
	system, and will install bootblocks on the root disk.ifelse(MDSMP,,,{:-

	On multiprocessor systems, if the kernel has been installed,
	it will be renamed to `bsd', which is the default kernel the boot
	blocks look for.  The single processor kernel, `bsd', will be
	available as `bsd.sp'.-:})-:})dnl
Congratulations, you have successfully installed OpenBSD OSREV.  When you
reboot into OpenBSD, you should log in as "root" at the login prompt.
You should create yourself an account and protect it and the "root"
account with good passwords.

The install program leaves root an initial mail message.  We recommend
you read it, as it contains answers to basic questions you might have
about OpenBSD, such as configuring your system, installing packages,
getting more information about OpenBSD, sending in your dmesg output
and more.  To do this, run


and then just enter "more 1" to get the first message.  You quit mail by
entering "q".

Some of the files in the OpenBSD OSREV distribution might need to be
tailored for your site.  We recommend you run:

	man afterboot

which will tell you about a bunch of the files needing to be reviewed.
If you are unfamiliar with UN*X-like system administration, it's
recommended that you buy a book that discusses it.-:})dnl
dnl ========== Upgrade instructions
dnl (usually used by arch/upgrade)
dnl OpenBSDUpgrade({:-<list of available boot methods>-:})dnl
dnl Parameter is optional.
{:-Warning! Upgrades to OpenBSD OSREV are currently only supported from the
immediately previous release.  The upgrade process will also work with older
releases, but might not execute some migration tasks that would be necessary
for a proper upgrade.  The best solution, whenever possible, is to backup
your data and reinstall from scratch.

To upgrade OpenBSD OSREV from a previous version, start with the general
instructions in the section "Installing OpenBSD".

Boot from $1.
When prompted, select the (U)pgrade option rather than the (I)nstall
option at the prompt in the install process.

You will be presented with a welcome message and asked if you really wish
to upgrade.

The upgrade script will ask you for the existing root partition, and
will use the existing filesystems defined in /etc/fstab to install the
new system in.  It will also use your existing network parameters.

From then, the upgrade procedure is very close to the installation
procedure described earlier in this document.  Note that the upgrade
procedure will not let you pick neither the ``etc{:--:}OSrev.tgz'' nor the
``xetc{:--:}OSrev.tgz'' sets, so as to preserve your files in `/etc' which
you are likely to have customized since a previous installation.

However, it is strongly advised that you unpack the etc{:--:}OSrev.tgz and
xetc{:--:}OSrev.tgz sets in a temporary directory and merge changes by hand, or
with the help of the sysmerge(8) helper script, since all components of
your system may not function correctly until your files in `/etc' are
dnl ========== Installation media preparation
dnl (usually used by arch/xfer)
dnl Generic preparation introduction, after the list of various sources.
dnl Use the short version unless there are too many methods, in this case
dnl the long versions adds a ``don't panic!'' notice.
{:-The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation
depend on which method of installation you choose.  Some methods
require a bit of setup first that is explained below.

The installation allows installing OpenBSD directly from FTP mirror
sites over the internet, however you must consider the speed and
reliability of your internet connection for this option.  It may save
much time and frustration to use ftp get/reget to transfer the
distribution sets to a local server or disk and perform the installation
from there, rather than directly from the internet.-:})dnl

The variety of options listed may seem confusing, but situations vary
widely in terms of what peripherals and what sort of network arrangements
a user has, the intent is to provide some way that will be practical.-:})dnl
dnl Various floppy generation instructions.
{:-Creating a bootable floppy disk using DOS/Windows:

	First you need to get access to the OpenBSD bootable floppy
	images.  If you can access the distribution from the CD-ROM under
	DOS, you will find the bootable disks in the OSREV/MACHINE
	directory.  Otherwise, you will have to download them from one of
	the OpenBSD FTP or HTTP mirror sites, using an FTP client or a web
	browser.  In either case, take care to do "binary" transfers, since
	these are images files and any DOS cr/lf translations or Control-z
	EOF interpretations will result in corrupted transfers.
	You will also need to go to the "tools" directory and grab a
	copy of the rawrite.exe utility and its documentation.  This
	program is needed to correctly copy the bootable filesystem
	image to the floppy, since it's an image of a unix partition
	containing an ffs filesystem, not an MSDOS format diskette.

	Once you have installed rawrite.exe, just run it and specify the
	name of the bootable image, such as "floppy{:--:}OSrev.fs" and the name of
	the floppy drive, such as "a:".  Be sure to use good quality HD
	(1.44MB) floppies, formatted on the system you're using.  The
	image copy and boot process is not especially tolerant of read

	Note that if you are using NT, 2000, or XP to write the
	images to disk, you will need to use ntrw.exe instead.  It
	is also available in the "tools" directory.  Grab it and
	run in with the correct arguments like this "ntrw <image>

	Note that, when installing, the boot floppy can be write-protected
	(i.e. read-only).-:})dnl
{:-Creating a bootable floppy disk using SunOS, Solaris or other Un*x-like system:

	First, you will need obtain a local copy of the bootable filesystem
	image as described above.  If possible use the sha1(1) command to
	verify the checksums of the images vs. the values in the SHA256 file
	on the mirror site.

	Next, use the dd(1) utility to copy the file to the floppy drive.
	The command would likely be, under SunOS:
		dd if=floppy{:--:}OSrev.fs of=/dev/rfd0c bs=36b
	and, under Solaris:
		dd if=floppy{:--:}OSrev.fs of=/dev/rdiskette0 bs=36b
	unless the volume management daemon, vold(1M), is running, in
	which case the following command is preferable:
		dd if=floppy{:--:}OSrev.fs of=/vol/dev/rdiskette0 bs=36b

	If you are using another operating system, you may have to adapt
	this to conform to local naming conventions for the floppy and
	options suitable for copying to a "raw" floppy image.  The key
	issue is that the device name used for the floppy *must* be one
	that refers to the correct block device, not a partition or
	compatibility mode, and the copy command needs to be compatible
	with the requirement that writes to a raw device must be in
	multiples of 512-byte blocks.  The variations are endless and
	beyond the scope of this document.

	If you're doing this on the system you intend to boot the floppy on,
	copying the floppy back to a file and doing a compare or checksum
	is a good way to verify that the floppy is readable and free of
	read/write errors.

	Note that, when installing, the boot floppy can be write-protected
	(i.e. read-only).-:})dnl
dnl Tape preparation instructions.
dnl OpenBSDXferBareTape describes how to set up a non-bootable distribution
dnl tape, and takes as an optional argument, the list of X11 sets which
dnl may be put on the tape.
{:-Creating an installation tape:

	While you won't be able to boot OpenBSD from a tape, you can use
	one to provide the installation sets.  To do so, you need to make
	a tape that contains the distribution set files, each in "tar"
	format or in "gzipped tar format".  First you will need to
	transfer the distribution sets to your local system, using ftp or
	by mounting the CD-ROM containing the release.  Then you need to
	make a tape containing the files.

	If you're making the tape on a UN*X-like system, the easiest way
	to do so is make a shell script along the following lines, call it

	#! /bin/sh
	mt -f ${TAPE} rewind
	for file in base etc comp game man misc $1
		dd if=${file}OSrev.tgz of=${TAPE} obs=8k conv=sync
	tar cf ${TAPE} bsd
	mt -f ${TAPE} offline
	# end of script

	And then:

	sh -x /tmp/maketape

	If you're using a system other than OpenBSD or SunOS, the tape
	name and other requirements may change.  You can override the
	default device name (/dev/nrst0) with the TAPE environment
	variable.  For example, under Solaris, you would probably run:

	TAPE=/dev/rmt/0n sh -x /tmp/maketape

	Note that, when installing, the tape can be write-protected
	(i.e. read-only).-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDXferBootTape describes how to set up a non-bootable distribution
dnl tape, and takes as first argument, the list of X11 sets which may be put
dnl on the tape.  Then at least one, and up to three arguments list the first
dnl files to be put on the tape to make it bootable.  Each filename can be
dnl followed by dd(1) arguments (such as conv=sync).
{:-Creating an (optionally bootable) installation tape:

	To install OpenBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that
	contains the distribution set files, each in "tar" format or in
	"gzipped tar format".  First you will need to transfer the
	distribution sets to your local system, using ftp or by
	mounting the CD-ROM containing the release.  Then you need to
	make a tape containing the files.

	If you're making the tape on a UN*X-like system, the easiest way
	to do so is make a shell script along the following lines, call it

	#! /bin/sh
	mt -f ${TAPE} rewind
	if test {:-$-:}# -lt 1
		dd of=${TAPE} if=$2
ifelse(X$3,X,,{:-		dd of=${TAPE} if=$3
ifelse(X$4,X,,{:-		dd of=${TAPE} if=$4
	for file in base etc comp game man misc $1
		dd if=${file}OSrev.tgz of=${TAPE} obs=8k conv=sync
	tar cf ${TAPE} bsd
	mt -f ${TAPE} offline
	# end of script

	And then:

	sh -x /tmp/maketape

        Note that, by default, this script creates a bootable tape.  If
	you only want to fetch the OpenBSD files from tape, but want to
	boot from another device, you can save time and space creating
	the tape this way:

        cd .../OSREV/MACHINE
        sh -x /tmp/maketape noboot

	If you're using a system other than OpenBSD or SunOS, the tape
	name and other requirements may change.  You can override the
	default device name (/dev/nrst0) with the TAPE environment
	variable.  For example, under Solaris, you would probably run:

	TAPE=/dev/rmt/0n sh -x /tmp/maketape

	Note that, when installing, the tape can be write-protected
	(i.e. read-only).-:})dnl
dnl OpenBSDXferNFS [(noupgrade)]
{:-To install OpenBSD using a remote partition, mounted via
NFS, you must do the following:

	NOTE:	This method of installation is recommended only for
		those already familiar with using BSD network
		configuration and management commands.  If you aren't,
		this documentation should help, but is not intended to
		be all-encompassing.

	Place the OpenBSD distribution sets you wish to install
	into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory
	mountable by the machine on which you are installing or
	upgrading OpenBSD.  This will probably require modifying
	the /etc/exports file of the NFS server and resetting
	its mount daemon (mountd).  (Both of these actions will
	probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

	You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS
	server, and, if the server is not on a network directly
	connected to the machine on which you're installing or
	upgrading OpenBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address
	of the router closest to the OpenBSD machine.  Finally,
	you need to know the numeric IP address of the OpenBSD
	machine itself.

	Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the
	information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next
	step in the installation ifelse(X$1,X,{:-or upgrade -:})process.ifelse(X$1,X,,{:-  If you're
	installing OpenBSD from scratch, go to the section on
	preparing your hard disk, below.  If you're upgrading an
	existing installation, go directly to the section on
{:-If you are upgrading OpenBSD, you also have the option of installing
OpenBSD by putting the new distribution sets somewhere in your
existing file system, and using them from there.  To do that, do
the following:

	Place the distribution sets you wish to upgrade somewhere
	in your current file system tree.  At a bare minimum, you
	must upgrade the "base" binary distribution, and so must
	put the "base{:--:}OSrev" set somewhere in your file system.  It
	is recommended that you upgrade the other sets, as well.-:})dnl
{:-Now you must populate the `/dev' directory for your client.  If the server
does not run OpenBSD you might save the MAKEDEV output:

	eo=echo ksh MAKEDEV all >

and then tailor it for your server operating system before running it.  Note
that MAKEDEV is written specifically for ksh, and may not work on any other
Bourne shell.

There will be error messages about unknown users and groups.  These errors are
inconsequential for the purpose of installing OpenBSD.  However, you may
want to correct them if you plan to use the diskless setup regularly.  In that
case, you may re-run MAKEDEV on your OpenBSD machine once it has booted.-:})dnl