Compare this file to the similar file:
Show the results in this format:

.pa 1
.he 'DC (IV)'6/12/72'DC (IV)'
.tr |
.ti 0
NAME		dc -- DC-11 communications interfaces
.ti 0
.in 8
The special files
/dev/tty0, /dev/tty1, ...
refer to the
DC11 asynchronous communications interfaces.
At the moment there are ten of them, but the number is subject
to change.

When one of these files is opened, it causes
the process to wait until a connection is established.
(In practice, however, user's programs seldom open these
files; they are opened by init____ and become a user's standard
input and output file.)
The very first typewriter file open in a process becomes
the control_______ type____writer______
for that process.  The control typewriter plays a special
role in handling quit or interrupt signals, as discussed
The control typewriter is inherited by a child process during a fork____.

A terminal associated with one of these files ordinarily
operates in full-duplex mode.  Characters may be typed at any time,
even while output is occurring, and are only lost when the
system's character input buffers become completely
choked, which is rare,
or when the user has accumulated the maximum allowed number of
input characters which have not yet been read by some program.
Currently this limit is 150 characters.
When this is happening the character "#" is echoed for every lost
input character.

When first opened,
the interface mode is
ASCII characters;
150 baud;
even parity only accepted;
10 bits/character (one stop bit);
and newline action character.
The system delays transmission after sending certain function characters.
Delays for horizontal tab, newline, and form feed are calculated for
the Teletype Model 37;
the delay for carriage return is calculated for the GE TermiNet|300.
Most of these operating states can be changed
by using the system call stty(II).
In particular
the following hardware states are program settable independently
for input and output (see DC11 manual):
134.5, 150, 300, or 1200 baud;
one or two stop bits on output;
and 5, 6, 7, or 8 data bits/character.
In addition, the following software modes can be invoked:
acceptance of even parity, odd parity, or both;
a raw mode in which all characters may be read one at a time;
a carriage return (CR) mode in which
CR is mapped into newline on input and
either CR or line feed (LF) cause echoing of
the sequence LF-CR;
mapping of upper case letters into lower case;
suppression of echoing;
suppression of delays after function characters;
the printing of tabs as spaces;
and setting the system to handle IBM|2741s.
See getty(VII) for the way that terminal speed and type are

Normally, typewriter input is processed in units of lines.
This means that a program attempting
to read will be suspended until an entire line has been
typed.  Also, no matter how many characters are requested
in the read call, at most one line will be returned.
It is not however necessary to read a whole line at
once; any number of characters may be
requested in a read, even one, without losing information.

During input, erase and kill processing is normally
The character "#" erases the
last character typed, except that it will not erase
beyond the beginning of a line or an EOT.
The character "@" kills the entire
line up to the point where it was typed, but not beyond an EOT.  Both these
characters operate on a keystroke basis independently
of any backspacing or tabbing that may have been done.
Either "@" or "#" may be entered literally by preceding
it by "\\";
the erase or kill character remains, but the
"\\" disappears.

It is possible to use raw mode in which
the program
reading is awakened on each character.
In raw mode, no erase or kill processing is done;
and the EOT, quit and interrupt characters
are not treated specially.

The ASCII EOT character may be used to generate an end of file
from a typewriter.
When an EOT is received, all the characters
waiting to be read are immediately passed to
the program, without waiting for a new-line.
Thus if there are no characters waiting, which
is to say the EOT occurred at the beginning of a line,
zero characters will be passed back, and this is
the standard end-of-file signal.
The EOT is not passed on except in raw mode.

When the carrier signal from the dataset drops (usually
because the user has hung up his terminal) any read
returns with an end-of-file indication.
Thus programs which read a typewriter and test for
end-of-file on their input
can terminate appropriately when
hung up on.

Two characters have a special meaning when typed.
The ASCII DEL character (sometimes called "rubout")
is the interrupt_________ signal.
When this character is received from a given typewriter,
a search is made for all processes which have this typewriter
as their control typewriter,
and which have not informed the system that they wish
to ignore interrupts.
If there is more than one such process, one of these is
selected, for practical purposes at random.
The process is either forced to exit
or a trap is simulated to an agreed-upon location
in the process.
See intr(II).

The ASCII character FS is the quit____ signal.
Its treatment is identical to the interrupt signal
except that unless the receiving process has
made other arrangements it will not only be terminated
but a core image file will be generated.
See quit(II).
The character is not passed on except in raw mode.

Output is prosaic compared to input.
When one or more
characters are written, they are actually transmitted
to the terminal as soon as previously-written characters
have finished typing.
Input characters are echoed by putting them in the output queue
as they arrive.
When a process produces characters more rapidly than they can be typed,
it will be suspended when its output queue exceeds some limit.
When the queue has drained down to some threshold
the program is resumed.
Even-parity is always generated on output.
The EOT character is not transmitted to prevent terminals
which respond to it from being hung up.
The system will handle IBM|2741 terminals.
See getty(VII) for the way that 2741s are detected.
In 2741 mode,
the hardware state
134.5 baud;
one output stop bit;
and 7 bits/character.
Because the 2741 is inherently half-duplex,
input is not echoed.
Proper function delays are provided.
For 2741s without a feature known as "transmit interrupt"
it is not possible to collect input ahead of the time that
a program reads the typewriter,
because once the keyboard has been enabled there is no way
to send further output to the 2741.
It is currently
assumed that the feature is absent;
thus the keyboard is unlocked only when some program reads.
The interrupt signal (normally ASCII DEL) is simulated
when the 2741 "attention" key is pushed to generate either
a 2741 style EOT or a break.
It is not possible to generate anything corresponding to
the end-of-file EOT or the quit signal.
Currently IBM EBCDIC is default for input and output;
correspondence code output is settable (see stty(I)).
.tr ||
The full ASCII character set is not available:
"[", "]", "{", "}", "~", are missing on input and are printed as blank on output;
"c|" is used for "\\";
"_" for "^";
" " for both "'" and"`"on output;
and " " maps into "'" on input.
.tr |
Similar mappings occur with correspondence code output.
.in 16
.ti 0
FILES		/dev/tty[01234567ab]	113B dataphones
/dev/ttyc		display data set
/dev/ttyd		113B with /dev/dn1
.ti 0
SEE ALSO	kl(IV), getty(VII)
.ti 0
primarily Model 37 oriented delays
may not be appropriate
for all other ASCII terminals.
.tr ||